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Posted: January 11th, 2024

Models and guidelines for supervision are used to support therapists

Models and guidelines for supervision are used to support therapists
Models and guidelines for supervision are essential tools to support therapists in their professional development and ethical practice. Supervision is a collaborative process that involves regular meetings between a supervisor and a supervisee, where the supervisor provides feedback, guidance, and support to the supervisee. Supervision can have various functions, such as enhancing the quality of services, ensuring client safety, facilitating learning, promoting self-care, and fostering reflective practice.

There are different models and guidelines for supervision that can be applied in different contexts and settings. Some of the common models are:

– The developmental model: This model assumes that supervisees go through different stages of development, from novice to expert, and that supervisors need to adapt their style and interventions accordingly. The developmental model focuses on the supervisee’s level of autonomy, competence, and self-awareness, and helps them to identify their strengths and areas for improvement.
– The integrative model: This model combines elements from different theoretical approaches and supervision methods, such as psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, humanistic, systemic, and multicultural. The integrative model allows supervisors and supervisees to tailor their supervision to their specific needs, preferences, and goals, and to address the complexity and diversity of clinical situations.
– The competency-based model: This model emphasizes the assessment and evaluation of the supervisee’s knowledge, skills, and attitudes in relation to specific competencies or standards of practice. The competency-based model provides clear criteria and feedback for the supervisee’s performance, and helps them to develop a plan for professional growth and improvement.

In addition to these models, there are also various guidelines and frameworks that can inform the supervision process, such as:

– The ethical principles and codes of conduct of the relevant professional bodies or associations, such as the American Psychological Association (APA), the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP), or the Australian Psychological Society (APS). These principles and codes provide guidance on the ethical responsibilities and obligations of supervisors and supervisees, such as confidentiality, informed consent, boundaries, competence, accountability, and respect.
– The best practice guidelines or standards of supervision developed by some organizations or agencies, such as the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB), the National Health Service (NHS), or the World Health Organization (WHO). These guidelines or standards provide recommendations on the frequency, duration, format, content, and outcomes of supervision, as well as the qualifications, training, and evaluation of supervisors.
– The evidence-based practices or research findings on effective supervision strategies and outcomes. These practices or findings provide empirical support for the use of certain supervision methods or techniques, such as goal-setting, feedback, reflection, modeling, role-playing, or case discussion.

By using these models and guidelines for supervision, therapists can benefit from a structured, systematic, and supportive process that can enhance their professional development and ethical practice.


Bernard J.M., Goodyear R.K. (2019). Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson.

Falender C.A., Shafranske E.P., Falicov C.J. (2014). Multiculturalism and Diversity in Clinical Supervision: A Competency-Based Approach. Washington: American Psychological Association.

Inskipp F., Proctor B. (2018). Skills in Gestalt Counselling & Psychotherapy. 4th ed. London: Sage.

Milne D.L. (2017). Evidence-Based Clinical Supervision: Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

Scaife J. (2019). Supervision in Clinical Practice: A Practitioner’s Guide. 3rd ed. London: Routledge.

Watkins C.E. Jr. (2018). Essentials of Psychoanalytic Supervision: A Relational-Intersubjective Approach. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.


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