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Posted: October 5th, 2023

K.H.’s diabetes mellitus poses a significant risk for hypertension

Pathophysiology Case Study

Nat risk factors for primary hypertension are evident from K.

H. ‘s history and hysterical data? Primary hypertension can be linked to several risk factors, some in Inch are evident in K. H. ‘s history and physical data. The first risk factor evident is KHz’s diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus poses as a threat and a risk factor to hypertension because the disease directly affects the blood vessels and arteries by hardening the arteries and potentially causing atherosclerosis, therefore raising blood pressure.

Other risk factors in KHz’s history are his age and race.

It has been en that African Americans are at highest risk for primary hypertension than other races. Additionally, as age increases, the risk for hypertension does so as well. These risk factors are non-modifiable, and unfortunately are independent risk factors for KHZ :Capstone and Bananas). However, KHZ is also slightly overweight which is a modifiable risk factor and can be eliminated as a risk factor if the weight is lost.

KHZ should continue to follow his low sodium diet plan to help with some of the weight loss and also to help lessen his hypersensitivity as sodium may lead to high blood pressure due to water retention (Mayo Clinic).

There are other risk factors associated with hypertension and rising blood pressure and it is important to find out if any of them are also evident in KHZ. One of these risk factors includes KHz’s activity level. It is Important for KHZ to stay physically active because inactive people are usually associated with having higher heart rates. The higher the heart rate, the harder the heart must work which puts a greater amount of pressure on the arteries leading to hypertension. Physical exercise can also help the weight loss process, in turn lowering high blood pressure.

Excessive smoking and drinking also leads to hypertension due to hardening of the arteries. Family history and high stress levels should also be determined if present in KHZ as they play a large role in hypertension as well (Mayo Clinic). Nat is the rationale for treating K. H. With an ACE inhibitor? What is the mechanism of action? ACE inhibitors are important and useful in the medication and treatment for KHZ due to their effectiveness in treating hypertension.

ACE inhibitors will help treat KHZ by slowing the negotiation converting enzyme (ACE). Negotiation II is produced by the body that can cause vasoconstriction of the blood vessels.

Negotiation II is made trot Negotiation I by the E It the production to Negotiation II is slowed by the ACE inhibitor, the blood vessels will be able to dilate, and blood pressure is able to be lowered (Capstone and Bananas). Thus, it is important for KHZ to stay on the ACE inhibitors due to his blood pressure readings. KHz’s blood pressure is 135/96.

His systolic blood pressure is in the pre-hypertensive range, however, his diastolic blood pressure is in the hypertensive range and therefore, his blood pressure is hypertensive. Since his blood pressure is high, it is important for KHZ to main taking the ACE inhibitors.

If KHZ was not on the ACE inhibitors, there is a significant chance that his blood pressure would actually be higher and more hypertensive than it is currently. His heart rate is 70 BPML, which is a normal heart rate (Capstone and Bananas), so it can be shown that the ACE inhibitor is probably helping his condition. Norms Cited Capstone, Lee-Ellen, and Jacqueline Bananas. Pathologically.

4th De. SST. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Inc. , 2010. 212-227.

Print. “High Blood Pressure hypertension). ” Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, n. D.

Primary Risk Factors
K.H.’s diabetes mellitus poses a significant risk for hypertension. Diabetes damages blood vessels and increases the likelihood of atherosclerosis, elevating blood pressure over time (American Heart Association, 2022).
African Americans have a higher risk of primary hypertension than other races (Mayo Clinic, 2023). Additionally, risk rises with age, and K.H. meets both these non-modifiable criteria (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016).
K.H. is also slightly overweight, a modifiable risk factor. Losing weight through diet and exercise can help lower blood pressure (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2021). K.H.’s low sodium diet should aid weight loss and reduce his sensitivity to sodium’s blood pressure-raising effects (Mayo Clinic, 2023).
Rationale for ACE Inhibitor Treatment
ACE inhibitors are first-line treatments for hypertension due to their effectiveness in relaxing blood vessels (American Heart Association, 2022). They work by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which normally converts angiotensin I to vasoconstrictive angiotensin II (National Library of Medicine, 2022).
By blocking this conversion, ACE inhibitors decrease angiotensin II levels and allow blood vessels to dilate, lowering blood pressure (Mayo Clinic, 2023). Given K.H.’s elevated diastolic reading of 96 mmHg, continued ACE inhibitor therapy is clearly warranted to control his hypertension.
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K.H.’s primary hypertension:
Pathophysiology Case Study: Analyzing Risk Factors and Treatment for Primary Hypertension in K.H.
This case study will analyze the risk factors evident in K.H.’s medical history and physical exam that may contribute to his primary hypertension diagnosis. First, K.H.’s demographic and comorbid condition risk factors will be discussed. Next, the rationale for treating his hypertension with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor will be provided, along with an explanation of how this class of drugs lowers blood pressure. With a thorough understanding of K.H.’s risk profile and treatment plan, his providers can best support him in managing this chronic condition.
Primary Risk Factors

K.H. has type 2 diabetes, which significantly increases his risk for developing hypertension (American Diabetes Association, 2023). Diabetes damages blood vessels over time through a process called diabetic microangiopathy (National Institutes of Health, 2021). This makes the arteries and capillaries more rigid and narrow, forcing the heart to work harder to pump blood throughout the body and elevating blood pressure (American Heart Association, 2022). Additionally, the disease often leads to atherosclerosis—a hardening and narrowing of arteries due to plaque buildup (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). By restricting blood flow, atherosclerosis strains the cardiovascular system and promotes hypertension.
As an African American man, K.H. faces higher risk of primary hypertension than individuals of other races (Mayo Clinic, 2023). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016), around 42% of African American men have hypertension, compared to 31% of non-Hispanic white men. Genetic and environmental factors both contribute to this health disparity (American Heart Association, 2022).
Advanced age is another non-modifiable risk factor that K.H. possesses. As we age, our arteries naturally stiffen over time due to normal wear and tear on the body (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2021). This arterial stiffness forces the heart to work harder to effectively circulate blood, elevating blood pressure levels (Mayo Clinic, 2023). The CDC (2016) reports that the prevalence of hypertension dramatically increases with each decade of life.
At 5’10” and 210 pounds, K.H.’s body mass index of 30 places him in the obese category (National Institutes of Health, 2021). Excess weight strains the entire cardiovascular system and is a leading modifiable risk factor for hypertension (American Heart Association, 2022). Losing even 5-10% of his total body weight through dietary changes and regular exercise could help lower K.H.’s blood pressure (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2021). His provider-recommended low-sodium diet aims to aid weight loss and reduce his sensitivity to sodium’s blood pressure-raising effects (Mayo Clinic, 2023).
Rationale for ACE Inhibitor Treatment
ACE inhibitors are considered a first-line treatment for hypertension due to their effectiveness and favorable side effect profile compared to other classes of blood pressure-lowering medications (American Heart Association, 2022). They work by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which is responsible for converting angiotensin I into the potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (National Library of Medicine, 2022).
By blocking the creation of angiotensin II, ACE inhibitors allow blood vessels to relax and dilate, decreasing the workload of the heart and lowering blood pressure over time (Mayo Clinic, 2023). For patients like K.H. who have a diastolic blood pressure reading in the hypertensive range (over 90 mmHg), ACE inhibitors provide an excellent pharmacological option for controlling high blood pressure and reducing cardiovascular disease risk if left untreated (American Heart Association, 2022). Given K.H.’s reading of 96 mmHg on exam, continuing ACE inhibitor therapy is clearly warranted.
Lifestyle Modifications
While medications play an important role in treating K.H.’s primary hypertension, lifestyle changes offer complementary non-pharmacological support. Regular aerobic exercise, even just 150 minutes per week, can help lower blood pressure by 5 mmHg on average (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2021). Physical activity also aids weight loss efforts and reduces stress levels, both of which benefit blood pressure control (Mayo Clinic, 2023).
The DASH diet, which emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy while limiting sugar, red meat, and sodium, can lower systolic blood pressure by 8-14 mmHg when followed long-term (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2021). Given K.H.’s obesity and diabetes, following this nutritious eating pattern would aid not only his cardiovascular health but also his weight and blood sugar management.
Limiting alcohol intake to no more than one drink per day for women or two drinks per day for men can also help lower blood pressure by 2-4 mmHg on average (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). For those who smoke, quitting provides significant and immediate blood pressure benefits (American Heart Association, 2022). Managing stress through relaxation techniques such as yoga or meditation may offer additional support (Mayo Clinic, 2023).
In summary, K.H.’s history of diabetes, African American race, advanced age, and obesity place him at high risk for primary hypertension. His elevated diastolic blood pressure reading warrants continued ACE inhibitor therapy to control this chronic condition. Lifestyle modifications including regular exercise, a DASH-style diet, moderation of alcohol intake, smoking cessation, and stress management can complement his pharmacological treatment plan. With adherence to medications and lifestyle changes, K.H.’s providers aim to effectively manage his blood pressure and reduce his risk of future cardiovascular events.
American Diabetes Association. (2023). Hypertension (High Blood Pressure). Retrieved from
American Heart Association. (2022). Understanding Blood Pressure Readings. Retrieved from
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet research paper writing service. Retrieved from
Mayo Clinic. (2023). High blood pressure (hypertension). Retrieved from
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2021). Lifestyle Changes to Manage High Blood Pressure. Retrieved from
National Institutes of Health. (2021). Overweight & Obesity. Retrieved from
National Library of Medicine. (2022). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Retrieved from

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