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Posted: September 17th, 2023

DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENTS

ASSIGNMENT

DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENTS

For this Discussion, you compare types of diabetes, including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.

RESOURCES
Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

oChapter 48, “Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus” (pp. 397–415)

oChapter 49, “Drugs for Thyroid Disorders” (pp. 416–424)

American Diabetes Association. (2018). Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of medical care in diabetesLinks to an external site.—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S73–S85. Retrieved from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/41/supple…

This article provides guidance on pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment as it pertains to treating patients with diabetes. Reflect on the content of this article as you continue to examine potential drug treatments for patients with diabetes.

To Prepare:

Review the Resources for this module and reflect on differences between types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Select one type of diabetes to focus on for this Discussion.
Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients, including effects of drug treatments.
Post a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples.

Discussion_Rubric

Criteria

Main Posting

Ans.

Answers all parts of the discussion question(s) expectations with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources. …Supported by at least three current, credible sources….Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of lea’

Types of Diabetes:
The main types are type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease where the body destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. It usually develops in childhood or early adulthood. Type 2 is the most common type, often associated with obesity and lack of exercise. Gestational diabetes develops in pregnant women who did not previously have diabetes. Juvenile diabetes is type 1 that develops in children and adolescents.
Drug Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes:
Many individuals with type 2 diabetes can control their blood sugar levels through lifestyle modifications like diet and exercise alone. However, oral medications are often needed as the disease progresses. Common classes of oral medications for type 2 diabetes include metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. These work in different ways such as increasing insulin sensitivity, stimulating insulin secretion from the pancreas, or slowing carbohydrate breakdown (1).
Dietary Considerations:
A healthy diet is crucial for managing all types of diabetes. It is recommended to choose whole, minimally processed foods and limit added sugars and refined carbohydrates. Meal planning should focus on consistency in carbohydrate intake and spacing carbohydrates evenly throughout the day. For individuals taking oral medications, the timing of meals in relation to medication dosing must be considered (2).
Long-Term Impact:
Over time, uncontrolled diabetes can lead to serious health complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. However, keeping blood sugar levels in target range through lifestyle changes, medication adherence, and medical care can help prevent or delay these complications. New treatments continue to be developed and refined to help people with diabetes live long, healthy lives (3,4).
In summary, while diabetes has no cure, understanding the different types and utilizing available treatment options can help people effectively manage their condition in both the short and long-term. Please let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions.
References:
American Diabetes Association. (2018). Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of medical care in diabetesLinks to an external site.—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S73–S85. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc18-S007
Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Diabetes UK. (2022). Diabetes complications. https://www.diabetes.org.uk/guide-to-diabetes/complications
Mayo Clinic. (2022). Diabetes – Symptoms and causes. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20371444

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Study Notes:
Diabetes and Drug Treatments: What You Need to Know

Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how the body uses glucose, a type of sugar that provides energy for cells. People with diabetes either do not produce enough insulin, a hormone that helps glucose enter the cells, or are resistant to its effects. This leads to high blood glucose levels, which can cause various complications such as heart disease, kidney disease, nerve damage, and vision problems.

There are different types of diabetes, such as type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. The most common type is type 2 diabetes, which accounts for about 90% of all cases. Type 2 diabetes usually develops in adulthood and is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, family history, and ethnic background.

The main goal of diabetes treatment is to keep blood glucose levels within a target range that prevents or delays complications. This can be achieved by a combination of lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and quitting smoking, and medication therapy.

There are many types of medications that can help lower blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Some of them work by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin, some by increasing the sensitivity of the cells to insulin, some by reducing the amount of glucose released by the liver, and some by slowing down the absorption of glucose from the intestines.

The choice of medication depends on several factors, such as the severity of diabetes, the presence of other medical conditions, the risk of side effects, and the cost and availability of the drugs. Some people may need to take more than one medication to achieve optimal blood glucose control.

Some of the newest medications for type 2 diabetes that have been approved in recent years are:

– **Steglatro (ertugliflozin)**: This drug belongs to a class of medications called sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. It works by blocking a protein in the kidneys that reabsorbs glucose from the urine back into the bloodstream. This lowers blood glucose levels and also reduces blood pressure and weight. It is taken once daily in the morning, with or without food. The dose can be adjusted from 5 mg to 15 mg depending on the response. It is not recommended for people with type 1 diabetes or kidney disease .

– **Glyxambi (empagliflozin and linagliptin)**: This drug combines two medications in one pill: empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor that lowers blood glucose levels by increasing urinary glucose excretion, and linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that stimulates the pancreas to release more insulin after meals. It is taken once daily in the morning, with or without food. The dose is 10 mg empagliflozin/5 mg linagliptin or 25 mg empagliflozin/5 mg linagliptin depending on the response .

– **Steglujan (ertugliflozin and sitagliptin)**: This drug combines two medications in one pill: ertugliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor that lowers blood glucose levels by increasing urinary glucose excretion, and sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor that stimulates the pancreas to release more insulin after meals. It is taken once daily in the morning, with or without food. The dose is 5 mg ertugliflozin/100 mg sitagliptin or 15 mg ertugliflozin/100 mg sitagliptin depending on the response .

– **Xigduo XR (dapagliflozin and metformin HCI extended-release)**: This drug contains two medications in one pill: dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor that lowers blood glucose levels by increasing urinary glucose excretion, and metformin, a biguanide that reduces the amount of glucose produced by the liver and improves insulin sensitivity. It is taken once or twice daily with meals. The dose varies based on the current treatment regimen and can range from 5 mg dapagliflozin/500 mg metformin to 10 mg dapagliflozin/2000 mg metformin . This drug has a warning for lactic acidosis , a rare but serious condition that occurs when too much acid builds up in the blood due to metformin accumulation.

These new medications have shown promising results in lowering blood glucose levels and reducing cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes. However, they also have some potential side effects, such as urinary tract infections , genital yeast infections , dehydration , hypotension , and ketoacidosis . Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

If you have type 2 diabetes, you should talk to your doctor about the best treatment options for you. You should also monitor your blood glucose levels regularly and follow a healthy lifestyle that includes a balanced diet, physical activity, and stress management. By doing so, you can improve your quality of life and prevent or delay diabetes complications.

Works Cited

: Pratt, Elizabeth. \”The Newest Diabetes Drugs on the Market.\” Verywell Health, 15 Feb. 2023, https://www.verywellhealth.com/new-diabetes-medications-5111874.

: \”What’s new in endocrinology and diabetes mellitus.\” UpToDate, 28 Jul. 2023, https://www.uptodate.com/contents/whats-new-in-endocrinology-and-diabetes-mellitus.

: \”Type 2 diabetes in adults: management.\” NICE, 2 Dec. 2015, https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng28. research essay writing service.

: \”Diabetes medication: List, alternatives, and developments.\” Medical News Today, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/311300.

: \”Type 2 Diabetes Medications, Treatments, and Lifestyle Changes.\” Verywell Health, https://www.verywellhealth.com/medication-reference-chart-for-type-2-diabetes-1087284.

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