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Posted: September 6th, 2023

Third-Party Political Influences in Albania and the Western Balkans

Third-Party Political Influences in Albania and the Western Balkans: Exploring the Impact of Russian, Chinese, Arab, and Iranian Interference


A. Background and Context:
Albania and the Western Balkans have undergone significant political and economic transformations in the past three decades, making them susceptible to third-party political interference. This interference can range from economic investments to disinformation campaigns, soft power strategies, religious and ideological influences. Such third-party influences can have far-reaching consequences, from destabilizing the democratic processes to affecting the region’s stability.

B. Research Question and Objectives:
This study aims to investigate the extent and impact of third-party political influences on political parties in Albania and the Western Balkans, focusing on Russian, Chinese, Arab, and Iranian interference. The following research questions will be addressed:

What are the specific strategies used by Russia, China, Arab, and Iran to influence political parties in the region?
What is the extent of such third-party interference on political parties in Albania and the Western Balkans?
What are the implications of third-party influences on the region’s stability and democracy?
C. Significance of the Study:
This study’s significance lies in exploring the impact of third-party political influences on political parties in Albania and the Western Balkans. It is essential to understand these influences’ nature and extent to develop policies and mechanisms to counteract them. This study will provide policymakers, academics, and civil society with insights into the impact of third-party political influences on the region’s democratic processes.

D. Research Methodology and Limitations:
This study will employ a qualitative research design, using a case study approach. The data will be collected from secondary sources, such as academic literature, reports, and news articles. The research will use content analysis to analyze the data. The study’s limitations include the availability and quality of the secondary data, which may be biased and incomplete.

II. Literature Review:

A. Definition of Third-Party Influences in Politics:
Third-party political influences refer to the involvement of external actors in domestic politics. Such influences can range from economic investments to information warfare, covert operations, and overt propaganda. Third-party influences aim to shape the domestic political landscape to advance their interests.

B. Historical Background of Political Parties in Albania and Western Balkans:
Political parties in Albania and the Western Balkans have a complex history, shaped by the region’s political, economic, and social developments. The political parties’ evolution has been influenced by internal and external factors, including foreign interference.

C. Previous Research on Third-Party Influences on Political Parties in the Region:
Previous studies have explored the impact of third-party political influences on the region’s political parties. Some studies have focused on Russian interference, while others have examined Chinese and Iranian influences. However, there is a need for more comprehensive research that includes multiple external actors and their strategies.

D. Overview of Russian, Chinese, Arab, and Iranian Political Influence Strategies:
Russian, Chinese, Arab, and Iranian political influence strategies vary but aim to achieve similar objectives. Russian interference strategies include economic investments, disinformation campaigns, and cyberattacks. Chinese interference strategies include economic investments, cultural diplomacy, and technological transfers. Arab interference strategies include economic investments, religious and cultural influences. Iranian interference strategies include ideological influence, proxy warfare, and diplomatic outreach.

III. Russian Influence on Political Parties in Albania and Western Balkans:

A. Russian Economic Investments in the Region:
Russia has made significant economic investments in the region, particularly in the energy sector. This investment has given Russia significant leverage over the region’s economic and political developments.

B. Russian Use of Disinformation Campaigns:
Russia has used disinformation campaigns to influence public opinion and promote its interests. These campaigns often target political parties and can have
significant effects on electoral outcomes. Disinformation campaigns are designed to spread false or misleading information through various channels, such as social media, news outlets, and blogs. The ultimate goal of such campaigns is to create confusion and sow mistrust among the targeted audience.

One example of Russian disinformation campaigns in Albania and the Western Balkans is the spreading of false information about the European Union (EU) and NATO. Russia sees the expansion of the EU and NATO as a threat to its interests in the region and therefore aims to undermine their credibility. Russian propaganda often portrays the EU and NATO as corrupt and ineffective organizations that serve the interests of the United States and other Western powers.

Another example is the spreading of fake news about political leaders in the region. Russia has been known to use fake news and doctored images to undermine the reputation of political leaders who are perceived as pro-Western. For instance, in 2017, Russian media outlets published a fake news story claiming that the Albanian Prime Minister Edi Rama had received a bribe from a U.S. businessman. The story was quickly debunked, but the damage had already been done.

Russian disinformation campaigns have also targeted social and cultural issues in the region. For example, Russia has been known to promote anti-LGBTQ+ and anti-Muslim sentiments in the Western Balkans through social media and other online platforms. This has led to a rise in hate speech and discrimination against these groups in the region.

Russian disinformation campaigns have had a significant impact on political parties in Albania and the Western Balkans. By spreading false information and promoting anti-Western sentiments, Russia has been able to increase its influence in the region and undermine the credibility of pro-Western political parties.

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