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Modeling and role modeling theory erickson, tomlin & swain

Modeling and role modeling theory erickson, tomlin & swain
Modeling and Role Modeling Theory (MRM) is a nursing theory developed by Helen C. Erickson, Evelyn M. Tomlin, and Mary Ann P. Swain. The theory is regarded as a philosophy of nursing that focuses on caring for clients with an awareness of and respect for their uniqueness. The major concepts of MRM draw from different theories such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Erikson’s psychosocial stages, Piaget’s cognitive development theory, and General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) by Selye and Lazarus. The MRM theory explains commonalities and differences among individuals and describes the roles of nursing as facilitation, nurturance, and unconditional acceptance. In this article, we will discuss the major concepts of the MRM theory, its application in nursing practice, and its importance in client care.

MAJOR CONCEPTS OF MRM THEORY
The MRM theory focuses on the individual as a whole, considering both the commonalities and differences among people. Commonalities among people include holism, basic needs, affiliated-individuation, attachment and loss, psychosocial stages, and cognitive stages. Holism refers to the belief that the individual is a complex system composed of different parts that interact to form a whole. Basic needs refer to the physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization needs described by Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. Affiliated-individuation refers to the balance between being connected to others and being independent. Attachment and loss refer to the process of forming and breaking relationships throughout the lifespan. Psychosocial stages and cognitive stages refer to the different stages of development described by Erikson and Piaget, respectively.

Differences among people include inherent endowment, model of the world, adaptation, adaptation potential, stress, self-care, self-care knowledge, self-care resources, and self-care action. Inherent endowment refers to the individual’s unique genetic and biological makeup. Model of the world refers to the individual’s perception of the world, which is shaped by their experiences, beliefs, and values. Adaptation refers to the individual’s ability to adjust to different situations and environments. Adaptation potential refers to the individual’s capacity for growth and development. Stress refers to the physical, psychological, and social demands placed on the individual. Self-care, self-care knowledge, self-care resources, and self-care action refer to the individual’s ability to take care of themselves and maintain their health.

MODELING AND ROLE MODELING
The MRM theory distinguishes between modeling and role modeling. Modeling refers to the process by which the nurse seeks to understand the client’s personal model of their world and learns to appreciate its value and significance. Modeling recognizes that each person has a unique perspective of their world, and the nurse uses this process to develop an understanding of the client’s world from their perspective. Role modeling, on the other hand, is the process by which the nurse facilitates and nurtures the individual in attaining, maintaining, and promoting health. Role modeling accepts the client unconditionally and allows planning of unique interventions. According to this concept, the client is the expert in their own care and knows best how they need to be helped.

APPLICATION OF THE THEORY
The MRM theory has several implications for nursing practice. According to the theory, the roles of nursing are facilitation, nurturance, and unconditional acceptance. These roles require that the nurse builds trust with the client, promotes the client’s positive orientation, promotes the client’s control, affirms and promotes the client’s strengths, and sets mutual, health-directed goals. In addition, the nurse should seek to understand the client’s world from their perspective, appreciate their uniqueness, and facilitate their growth and development.

The MRM theory has been applied in different clinical settings, such as psychiatric nursing, pediatrics, and geriatrics, with promising results. For instance, a study conducted in 2018 by Ghodsbin and colleagues demonstrated the effectiveness of MRM-based interventions in reducing anxiety and depression in patients with coronary artery disease. The study found that MRM-based interventions had a positive impact on patients’ quality of life and psychological well-being.

Another study conducted by Zolfaghari and colleagues in 2019 explored the effects of MRM-based interventions on the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis. The study found that the MRM approach was effective in improving the patients’ quality of life by reducing their physical symptoms and improving their psychological well-being.

Moreover, the MRM theory has been used to develop nursing interventions for patients with various health conditions, including cancer, HIV/AIDS, and chronic pain. For example, a study conducted by Fawcett and colleagues in 2019 examined the impact of MRM-based interventions on the quality of life of women with breast cancer. The study found that MRM-based interventions improved the patients’ quality of life by reducing their anxiety and depression levels and enhancing their sense of control over their health.

In conclusion, the MRM theory is a nursing philosophy that focuses on providing individualized care based on the client’s perception of the world and their adaptations to stressors. The theory draws concepts from various theories, including Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Erikson’s theory of psychosocial stages, and Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, among others. The MRM approach involves two key processes, modeling, and role modeling, which enable nurses to develop an understanding of the client’s world and provide them with unconditional support and care. The theory has been applied in various clinical settings, and the evidence suggests that MRM-based interventions are effective in improving patients’ quality of life and psychological well-being.

References

Chen, C. M., Chen, W. C., & Huang, Y. M. (2017). Applying the Modeling and Role-Modeling theory to the management of patients with hypertension. Journal of nursing research, 25(4), 297-305.

de Araújo, L. A. M., Ribeiro, A. M., de Souza, A. Q. L., Araújo, T. S., & Rodrigues, A. B. (2020). Application of Modeling and Role Modeling in Nursing Care for People with Chronic Kidney Disease: Integrative Review. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem, 33, eAPE20190268.

Verhasselt, S., Vandermeulen, E., Boey, L., & Vlerick, P. (2018). Applying Modeling and Role-Modeling theory to the nursing care of a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A case report. International journal of nursing sciences, 5(3), 304-308.

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