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Posted: September 6th, 2023

Managing Diabetes: Evidence-Based Screening and Health Promotion Strategies

Managing Diabetes: Evidence-Based Screening and Health Promotion Strategies

Diabetes is a chronic illness that requires constant management and monitoring. Implementing evidence-based screening measures and health promotion strategies can help patients receive proper care and reduce the risk of complications.

Screening Strategies for Diabetes Patients

Type 2 Diabetes Screening

Individuals who are overweight and have at least one additional risk factor, such as family history, high blood pressure, and physical inactivity, should be screened for type 2 diabetes. Ethnicity and race also play a role in the risk for diabetes, with African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, Pacific Islanders, and some Asian Americans being at particularly high risk (CDC, 2022).

Lipid Screening

Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association recommends lipid level testing annually, with more frequent testing if levels are not within the target range (ADA, 2022).

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels is crucial in managing diabetes. Patients receiving treatment should always be encouraged to check their blood glucose levels regularly, with the frequency depending on their current treatment plan (ADA, 2022).

Diagnosis and Management of Diabetes

Diabetes can be diagnosed based on plasma glucose criteria, either the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) value or the 2-h plasma glucose (2-h PG) value during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), or A1C criteria (ADA, 2022).

Managing Diabetes through Health Promotion Strategies

Blood Pressure Screening

High blood pressure is common among diabetes patients and can lead to complications. Educating patients on monitoring and recording their blood pressure readings is crucial. Blood pressure should be checked annually and more frequently if it is not well controlled (ADA, 2022).

Eye Exams

Diabetes can cause retinopathy, leading to vision loss if left unmanaged. Patients with diabetes should have their eyes dilated annually to check for signs of retinopathy (ADA, 2022).

Physical Activity

Regular physical activity can improve blood glucose levels and decrease the risk of other medical complications, such as heart problems. Patients should be encouraged to engage in some type of exercise routine. The American Diabetes Association recommends getting 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise each week to manage diabetes (ADA, 2023).

Foot Exams

Poor circulation and nerve damage are common among diabetes patients. Annual examinations should be performed to check for any signs of damage, and patients should check their feet regularly at home (ADA, 2022).


Diabetes is a complex illness that requires continuous management and monitoring. By implementing evidence-based screening measures and health promotion strategies, primary care providers can effectively treat and prevent complications from diabetes. These strategies can also improve the quality of life for diabetes patients, ensuring that they receive the best care possible.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2022). National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2021. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from

American Diabetes Association (ADA). (2023). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2023. Diabetes Care, 46(Supplement 1), S1-S204. doi: 10.2337/dc23-SINT

Schaper, N. C., Boulton, A. J. M., Bakker, K., & Edmonds, M. (2020). Diabetic foot ulceration: a comprehensive review. Diabetologia, 63(5), 843-854. doi: 10.1007/s00125-020-05157-

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