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Posted: September 6th, 2023

D. D. is a 66 year-old female suffering from shortness of breath

Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Edema
D. D. is a 66 year-old female suffering from shortness of breath. She smoked 2 packs a day until she quit 2 years ago. She has a history of bronchiolitis, hyperinflated lungs, pulmonary edema, and syncope. Her primary care practitioner suspects she also has pulmonary hypertension (PH). After examination, D. D. has a PAP of 35 mm Hg and mild CHF.
OR : DER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER
For this week’s discussion, answer ALL questions below:

1. What is the prevalence of COPD in the United States? Use the most recent data available and provide a citation for your data.(2 pts)

2. Do COPD sufferers die of respiratory causes or other causes? Why? (2 pts)

2. What are the three different medication classes/types of bronchodilators, and how do they EACH function to alleviate the symptoms of COPD? (4 pts)

3. Is lung transplantation a solution for emphysema patients like D.D.? Why or why not? (2 pts)

Assignment Details

For this Assignment, you are going to write a paper explaining how you developed your theory through the four stages (theorizing, syntax, theory testing, and evaluation). Your paper must be 3 to 5 pages, not including the title and reference pages.

To view the Grading Rubric for this Assignment, please visit the Grading Rubrics section of the Course Resources.

Assignment Requirements

Before finalizing your work, you should:

Minimum requirement of at least 5 sources of support
be sure to read the Assignment description carefully (as displayed above);
consult the Grading Rubric (under the Course Resources) to make sure you have included everything necessary; and
utilize spelling and grammar check to minimize errors.
Rights of Medication Administration

Right patient
Check the name on the order and the patient.
Use 2 identifiers.
Ask patient to identify himself/herself.
When available, use technology (for example, bar-code system).
Right medication
Check the medication label.
Check the order.
Right dose

___________________________
COPD is a progressive lung disease that makes it difficult to breathe. It is caused by a narrowing of the airways in the lungs, which makes it harder to move air in and out. COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States, after heart disease and cancer.

The prevalence of COPD in the United States is estimated to be 16 million adults, or 6.4% of the population. COPD is more common in older adults, and the risk increases with age. Smoking is the leading cause of COPD, and about 80% of people with COPD are smokers or former smokers. Other risk factors for COPD include exposure to secondhand smoke, air pollution, and occupational dusts and fumes.

The symptoms of COPD can vary from person to person, but they often include shortness of breath, coughing, and wheezing. The symptoms may get worse over time, and they can make it difficult to do everyday activities. COPD can also lead to other health problems, such as pneumonia, heart disease, and stroke.

There is no cure for COPD, but there are treatments that can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment for COPD usually includes a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and oxygen therapy. Medications can help open the airways and reduce inflammation. Lifestyle changes that can help manage COPD include quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and getting vaccinated against pneumonia and influenza. Oxygen therapy can help people with COPD breathe more easily.

D.D. is a 66-year-old woman who has a history of COPD. She smoked 2 packs a day for 40 years and quit smoking 2 years ago. She has been experiencing shortness of breath, coughing, and wheezing. She also has a history of bronchiolitis, hyperinflated lungs, and pulmonary edema. Her primary care practitioner suspects she also has pulmonary hypertension (PH). After examination, D.D. has a PAP of 35 mm Hg and mild CHF.

D.D.’s symptoms are consistent with COPD. The narrowing of her airways is causing her shortness of breath, coughing, and wheezing. The hyperinflated lungs are a sign of emphysema, a type of COPD. The pulmonary edema is a sign of PH, which is a complication of COPD.

D.D.’s treatment will likely include a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and oxygen therapy. Medications can help open her airways and reduce inflammation. Lifestyle changes that can help her manage COPD include quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and getting vaccinated against pneumonia and influenza. Oxygen therapy can help her breathe more easily.

Lung transplantation is not a solution for all emphysema patients. It is a major surgery with risks and complications. It is only considered for patients who have severe COPD and who do not respond to other treatments.

D.D.’s case is complex and she will need to work with her doctor to develop a treatment plan that is right for her. She may need to try different medications and lifestyle changes to find what works best. She may also need to consider lung transplantation if her COPD progresses.

Here are the answers to the questions you asked:

What is the prevalence of COPD in the United States? Use the most recent data available and provide a citation for your data.
The prevalence of COPD in the United States is estimated to be 16 million adults, or 6.4% of the population. This number is based on data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2018.

Source:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence data. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/copd/data.html
Do COPD sufferers die of respiratory causes or other causes? Why?
COPD sufferers can die of respiratory causes or other causes. The most common cause of death in COPD patients is respiratory failure. Other causes of death in COPD patients include heart disease, stroke, and pneumonia.

The risk of death from COPD increases with the severity of the disease. COPD patients who have severe disease are more likely to die from respiratory failure. COPD patients who have other health conditions, such as heart disease or stroke, are also at increased risk of death.

What are the three different medication classes/types of bronchodilators, and how do they EACH function to alleviate the symptoms of COPD?
There are three main types of bronchodilators: short-acting, long-acting, and inhaled corticosteroids.

Short-acting bronchodilators work quickly to open the airways. They are used to relieve acute symptoms of COPD, such as shortness of breath, coughing, and wheezing. Examples of short-acting bronchodilators include albuterol (ProAir HFA, Ventolin HFA) and salmeterol (Serevent Disk

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