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Posted: September 6th, 2023

A 47-year-old female presents with Stage IV breast cancer

Case study 2

Choose one of the case studies below and discuss the condition

Case Studies

A 47-year-old female presents with Stage IV breast cancer. Today, the PET scan reveals brain metastasis.

Define proliferation and differentiation and relate these changes to cancer.

Describe invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis.

There are three underlying causes of growth and maturity abnormalities: telomerase, pRB changes and 53 changes. Discuss these in relation to the patient.

Discuss tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes and DNA repair genes.

A 30-year-old presents with a history of IV drug use, HIV +, and is today diagnosed with pneumonia.

Does the patient have an acute or chronic state of inflammation? Explain the rationale.

What is the significance of cellular replication in a patient with HIV?

What is viral load and what is the relationship with CD4 T cells?

How did the pneumonia occur?

A 25-year-old male presents with chronic sinusitis and allergic rhinitis.

Define innate vs. acquired immunity.

Define active vs. passive immunity.

Discuss the genetic predisposition of allergens.

Describe the antigen-antibody response.

What is the pathology of sinusitis?

A 40-year-old has an endometrial biopsy report: benign endometrial hyperplasia.

Explain the diagnosis.

Which cells are implicated in this diagnosis? Compare and contrast atrophy vs. hyperplasia.

How does dysplasia differ from hyperplasia?

Does hyperplasia lead to neoplasia? Defend your answer.


Initial Post of Case Study:

· Length: 400 words, not including references

· Citations: At least three high-level scholarly reference in APA from within the last 5 years

Case Study: A 47-year-old female presents with Stage IV breast cancer. Today, the PET scan reveals brain metastasis.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and brain metastasis is a common complication of advanced-stage breast cancer. The patient’s diagnosis of Stage IV breast cancer with brain metastasis indicates that the cancer has spread to distant sites from the breast tissue, indicating a more advanced stage and a poorer prognosis.

Proliferation refers to the process of cell division, while differentiation is the process by which cells specialize into specific types with distinct functions. Cancer occurs when there is uncontrolled cell proliferation and impaired differentiation. These changes result in the formation of a mass of abnormal cells, known as a tumor, which can invade surrounding tissues, leading to cancer progression.

Invasion refers to the ability of cancer cells to break through the basement membrane and infiltrate the surrounding tissues. Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels by cancer cells to supply the growing tumor with oxygen and nutrients. Metastasis occurs when cancer cells detach from the primary tumor, invade the bloodstream or lymphatic system, and spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain.

The three underlying causes of growth and maturity abnormalities are telomerase, pRB changes, and 53 changes. Telomerase is an enzyme that maintains the length of telomeres, which are protective caps at the end of chromosomes. The activation of telomerase can lead to increased cell proliferation and cancer development. pRB (retinoblastoma protein) is a tumor suppressor gene that regulates cell division. Mutations in pRB can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation and cancer development. 53 (p53) is another tumor suppressor gene that plays a critical role in DNA repair and apoptosis. Mutations in p53 can result in impaired DNA repair and resistance to apoptosis, leading to cancer development.

Tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, and DNA repair genes are crucial in cancer development. Tumor suppressor genes like pRB and p53 regulate cell proliferation, while oncogenes like HER2 promote cell growth and division. DNA repair genes play a crucial role in correcting DNA damage, preventing mutations, and reducing the risk of cancer development.

In conclusion, the patient’s diagnosis of Stage IV breast cancer with brain metastasis indicates a more advanced stage of cancer with a poor prognosis. Changes in proliferation and differentiation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis are key features of cancer development. Understanding the underlying genetic causes of growth and maturity abnormalities and the role of tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, and DNA repair genes is essential in cancer management and treatment.

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