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Posted: September 4th, 2023

The Humanistic Theory and the Social Cognitive Theory

Nursing Theory Comparison paper

The purpose of this assignment is to draft and submit a comprehensive and complete rough draft of your Nursing Theory Comparison paper in APA format. Your rough draft should include all of the research paper elements of a final draft, which are listed below. This will give you an opportunity for feedback from your instructor before you submit your final draft during week 7.

Based on the reading assignment (McEwen & Wills, Theoretical Basis for Nursing, Unit II: Nursing Theories, chapters 6–9), select a grand nursing theory.

After studying and analyzing the approved theory, write about this theory, including an overview of the theory and specific examples of how it could be applied in your own clinical setting.

Based on the reading assignment (McEwen & Wills, Theoretical Basis for Nursing, Unit II: Nursing Theories, chapters 10 and 11), select a middle-range theory.

· After studying and analyzing the approved theory, write about this theory, including an overview of the theory and specific examples of how it could be applied in your own clinical setting.

The following should be included:

1. An introduction, including an overview of both selected nursing theories

2. Background of the theories

3. Philosophical underpinnings of the theories

4. Major assumptions, concepts, and relationships

5. Clinical applications/usefulness/value to extending nursing science testability

6. Comparison of the use of both theories in nursing practice

7. Specific examples of how both theories could be applied in your specific clinical setting

8. Parsimony

9. Conclusion/summary

10. References: Use the course text and a minimum of three additional sources, listed in APA format

The paper should be 8–10 pages long and based on instructor-approved theories. It should be typed in Times New Roman with 12-point font, and double-spaced with 1″ margins. APA format must be used, including a properly formatted cover page, in-text citations, and a reference list. The proper use of headings in APA format is also required.

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Nursing Theory Comparison: The Humanistic Theory and the Social Cognitive Theory

Introduction:
In the realm of nursing, theories provide a framework for understanding and guiding practice. This paper aims to compare two prominent nursing theories: the Humanistic Theory and the Social Cognitive Theory. Both theories contribute valuable insights into nursing practice and offer unique perspectives on patient care. This comparison will explore the background, philosophical underpinnings, major assumptions, clinical applications, and implications for nursing science testability of each theory.

I. Grand Nursing Theory: Humanistic Theory
A. Overview of the Theory:
The Humanistic Theory, developed by Dr. Josephine Paterson and Dr. Loretta Zderad, focuses on the human experience and the nurse-patient relationship. It emphasizes the importance of humanistic values, including trust, empathy, and respect for the patient’s dignity. The theory promotes holistic care and recognizes the uniqueness of each individual.

B. Philosophical Underpinnings of the Theory:
The Humanistic Theory is grounded in existentialism and phenomenology, which emphasize subjective human experiences and the pursuit of meaning and purpose in life. These philosophical underpinnings shape the theory’s view that nursing is an interpersonal process that recognizes the patient’s subjective reality and promotes their self-actualization.

C. Major Assumptions, Concepts, and Relationships:
The Humanistic Theory assumes that individuals are self-determining beings who possess the capacity for personal growth and self-awareness. Key concepts in this theory include caring, mutuality, transcendence, and nurse-patient collaboration. The nurse-patient relationship is central, characterized by genuine presence, active listening, and empathetic understanding.

D. Clinical Applications and Value to Nursing Science:
The Humanistic Theory has practical applications in nursing practice. It encourages nurses to create a therapeutic environment that promotes patient autonomy and facilitates their growth and development. Applying this theory in clinical settings involves fostering open communication, respecting patients’ values and beliefs, and engaging in shared decision-making.

II. Middle-Range Nursing Theory: Social Cognitive Theory
A. Overview of the Theory:
The Social Cognitive Theory, developed by Albert Bandura, focuses on the reciprocal interactions between individuals, their behavior, and the environment. It emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and self-regulation in shaping human behavior. The theory recognizes that individuals learn through observation, imitation, and modeling.

B. Philosophical Underpinnings of the Theory:
The Social Cognitive Theory is rooted in cognitive psychology and social learning theory. It recognizes that individuals’ thoughts, beliefs, and cognitive processes influence their behavior and can be modified through learning experiences. This theory emphasizes the role of social influences and the importance of cognitive processes in behavior change.

C. Major Assumptions, Concepts, and Relationships:
The Social Cognitive Theory assumes that individuals are proactive agents in their own learning and behavior change. Key concepts include observational learning, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulation. The theory posits that individuals learn by observing others, forming expectations about the outcomes of their actions, and adjusting their behavior accordingly.

D. Clinical Applications and Value to Nursing Science:
The Social Cognitive Theory has practical applications in nursing practice, particularly in health promotion and behavior change interventions. Nurses can utilize this theory to develop educational programs that emphasize role modeling, providing opportunities for observational learning, and enhancing self-efficacy. Applying this theory can help patients develop skills and confidence to manage their health effectively.

III. Comparison of the Use of Both Theories in Nursing Practice:
Both the Humanistic Theory and the Social Cognitive Theory contribute valuable perspectives to nursing practice. While the Humanistic Theory emphasizes the importance of the nurse-patient relationship and individual uniqueness, the Social Cognitive Theory focuses on the reciprocal interactions between individuals and their environment. Integrating both theories can lead to a comprehensive and patient-centered approach to care.

IV. Specific Examples of Application in a Clinical Setting:
In a clinical setting, the Humanistic Theory can be applied by establishing a therapeutic relationship with patients, promoting their autonomy and dignity, and engaging in active listening and empathetic understanding. The Social Cognitive Theory can be applied by using role modeling and observational learning to teach patients self-care skills, promoting self-efficacy and behavior change.

V. Parsimony:
Both theories strive for parsimony by providing concise explanations and focusing on key concepts relevant to nursing practice. The Humanistic Theory emphasizes the nurse-patient relationship, while the Social Cognitive Theory focuses on cognitive processes and behavior change. Each theory provides a unique perspective while minimizing unnecessary complexity.

VI. Conclusion/Summary:
In conclusion, the Humanistic Theory and the Social Cognitive Theory offer valuable insights and practical applications for nursing practice. The Humanistic Theory emphasizes the nurse-patient relationship and holistic care, while the Social Cognitive Theory focuses on cognitive processes and behavior change. Integrating these theories can enhance the delivery of patient-centered care, promoting well-being and facilitating positive health outcomes.

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