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Posted: September 4th, 2023

Table 5.1 on page 134 of your book lists six effects that global warming

Answer these questions
1) Table 5.1 on page 134 of your book lists six effects that global warming has on the planet that
can impact Earth’s species. For each effect listed below, look up an organism that is being
directly impacted by the effect (OTHER than those listed in Table 5.1). Include the information
in the outlined sections below. Include a hyperlink to the source of where you got the
information, which should be a credible website or journal article.
Effect: Increased temperatures and incidence of heat waves
Species scientific and common name:
How is the species being impacted? (one sentence):
Reference link:
Effect: Melting glaciers and polar ice
Species scientific and common name:
How is the species being impacted? (one sentence):
Reference link:
Effect: Rising sea level
Species scientific and common name:
How is the species being impacted? (one sentence):
Reference link:
Effect: Earlier spring activity
Species scientific and common name:
How is the species being impacted? (one sentence):
Reference link:
Effect: Shifts in species ranges
Species scientific and common name:
How is the species being impacted? (one sentence):
Reference link:
Effect: Population declines
Species scientific and common name:
How is the species being impacted? (one sentence):
Reference link:
Summary: Are the effects of global warming felt equally around the world? Why or why not?
2) Suppose that orchids can grow on green roofs in. Because of specific growing requirements,
these orchids can only grow on the roofs, not on the ground, so each rooftop habitat is similar to
an island. Constants for the orchids are:
C = 1.20
Z = 0.18
A) Use the empirical formula for species-area relationship (page 177 of the textbook) to
determine the number of orchid species that could grow on green roofs of the following sizes:
10 m2
100 m2
1000 m2
10000 m2
B) Plot your calculated species-area relationship on a graph using a program like Excel. Log transform the island area for the graph, as MacArthur and Wilson (1967) did on page 178 of your
textbook (Figure 6.7). Include all appropriate and necessary axis labels and a caption. Paste your
final graph below.
C) The green roof on a building covers 4,000 square feet. Convert this to square meters, and use
your graph to approximate how many orchid species the building’s green roof could support in
this scenario.
D) Discuss how at least 3 factors other than green roof size could affect the various orchid
species’ potential for local extirpation in these habitats.
3) Two of the scientific papers provided discuss the effects of environmental disturbances on the
genetic diversity of populations; Potvin et al. (2016) and Walisch et al. (2022).
A) Summarize the overall genetic effects of the environmental disturbance on the species being
studied from each of these papers.
B) Which species, Litoria paraewingi or Saxifraga granulata would you expect to be more
vulnerable to extinction, based on the results of these studies? Use at least 2 specific pieces of
information from the journal articles to justify your choice.
C) Is there evidence that Litoria paraewingi, Litoria ewingii, or Saxifraga granulata has reached
its minimum viable population? Explain why or why not using evidence from the journal
articles.
4) Suppose we humans destroy Earth so badly that we must live on another planet. The
Interstellar Conservation Translocation Team has suggested that we can bring all of Earth’s
species with us if we freeze tissue samples, then develop the tissue into living organisms and
raise them in captivity once we colonize our new planet. Assume that the abiotic conditions of
the planet are suitable for sustaining living organisms but there are not yet any signs of life.
A) Discuss both the feasibility and the practicality of this plan, specifically in terms of biological
conservation. To start, define what type of conservation translocation this would be and defend
your reasoning. Provide evidence that supports your discussion.
B) Discuss special considerations that must be given for animal introductions, using a specific
example that is not included in Chapter 8 of the textbook. Include at least one citation with
appropriate information about your chosen species.
C) Offer at least one alternative measure or plan that the planning team should consider.

Effect: Increased temperatures and incidence of heat waves
Species scientific and common name: Great Barrier Reef Corals
How is the species being impacted? (one sentence): Rising ocean temperatures are causing coral bleaching, a process where coral expel their algae, leading to their death and damage to the reef ecosystem.
Reference link: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2019/04/great-barrier-reef-coral-bleaching-2019/

Effect: Melting glaciers and polar ice
Species scientific and common name: Polar bears
How is the species being impacted? (one sentence): Melting sea ice reduces polar bear’s hunting grounds, leading to food scarcity, increased mortality and population decline.
Reference link: https://www.worldwildlife.org/stories/how-climate-change-affects-polar-bears-and-the-arctic

Effect: Rising sea level
Species scientific and common name: Sea turtles
How is the species being impacted? (one sentence): Rising sea levels can lead to loss of nesting beaches, and increased flooding which threatens the survival of sea turtle eggs and hatchlings.
Reference link: https://www.worldwildlife.org/stories/how-climate-change-affects-sea-turtles

Effect: Earlier spring activity
Species scientific and common name: American Robin
How is the species being impacted? (one sentence): Earlier spring activity disrupts the timing of bird migration and nesting, causing mismatches with food availability and population declines in some bird species, including the American Robin.
Reference link: https://www.audubon.org/magazine/spring-2018/early-spring-messes-birds

Effect: Shifts in species ranges
Species scientific and common name: Adélie Penguins
How is the species being impacted? (one sentence): Shifts in krill, the main prey of Adélie penguins, due to ocean warming and ice loss, is causing a decline in their population in some regions.
Reference link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-23479-w

Effect: Population declines
Species scientific and common name: Monarch Butterfly
How is the species being impacted? (one sentence): Population declines are caused by habitat loss and climate change, which affect the availability of milkweed, the only plant where monarchs lay their eggs and where their larvae feed.
Reference link: https://www.worldwildlife.org/stories/how-climate-change-affects-the-monarch-butterfly

Summary: The effects of global warming are not felt equally around the world. Regions that are closer to the poles or at higher elevations tend to experience greater effects, such as melting permafrost, glacier retreat, and changes in snowpack, than those closer to the equator. Additionally, areas that are already experiencing other stressors, such as habitat loss or pollution, are likely to be more vulnerable to the effects of global warming.

A) The empirical formula for species-area relationship is S = CA^Z, where S is the number of species, A is the area, C is a constant, and Z is the slope of the line. Using the given constants for orchids, we can calculate the number of orchid species that could grow on green roofs of the following sizes:

10 m2: S = 1.20 x 10^0.18 = 1.8
100 m2: S = 1.20 x 100^0.18 = 4.2
1000 m2: S = 1.20 x 1000^0.18 = 9.8
10000 m2: S = 1.20 x 10000^0.18 = 22.9

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