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Posted: September 4th, 2023

Mario is a 66-year-old Hispanic male Case Study Assignment

Mario is a 66-year-old Hispanic male

The Assignment:
Complete the Focused SOAP Note Template provided for the patient in the case study. Be sure to address the following:
• Subjective: What was the patient’s subjective complaint? What details did the patient provide regarding their history of present illness and personal and medical history? Include a list of prescription and over-the-counter drugs the patient is currently taking. Compare this list to the American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria®, and consider alternative drugs if appropriate. Provide a review of systems.
• Objective: What observations did you note from the physical assessment? What were the lab, imaging, or functional assessments results?
• Assessment: Provide a minimum of three differential diagnoses. List them from top priority to least priority. Compare the diagnostic criteria for each, and explain what rules each differential in or out. Explain you critical thinking process that led you to the primary diagnosis you selected. Include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives for the specific patient case.
• Plan: Provide a detailed treatment plan for the patient that addresses each diagnosis, as applicable. Include documentation of diagnostic studies that will be obtained, referrals to other health-care providers, therapeutic interventions, education, disposition of the patient, caregiver support, and any planned follow-up visits. Provide a discussion of health promotion and disease prevention for the patient, taking into consideration patient factors, past medical history (PMH), and other risk factors. Finally, include a reflection statement on the case that describes insights or lessons learned.
• Provide at least three evidence-based peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced-based guidelines, which relate to this case to support your diagnostics and differentials diagnoses. Be sure they are current (no more than 5 years old) and support the treatment plan in following current standards of care. Follow APA 7th edition formatting. Plan: Give the patient a detailed treatment plan that takes into account each diagnosis, as needed. Include information about the diagnostic tests that will be done, referrals to other health care providers, therapeutic interventions, education, the patient’s disposition, support for the caregiver, and any follow-up visits that are planned. Provide a discussion about improving the patient’s health and preventing disease, taking into account the patient’s factors, past medical history (PMH), and other risk factors. Lastly, include a statement about what you learned or what you thought about the case.
• Give at least three peer-reviewed journal articles or evidence-based guidelines that relate to this case and support your diagnostics and differential diagnoses. Make sure they are up-to-date (no older than 5 years) and help the treatment plan meet current standards of care. Use the format of the APA 7th edition.

Case Study
HPI: Mario is a 66-year-old Hispanic male who presents to the emergency room at his local hospital with acute aphasia, right facial droop, and right-sided weakness. The sudden onset of symptoms occurred at the post office where he works part time. One of his co-workers called 911. On the way to the hospital, the advanced squad team evaluated Mario’s neurologic deficits and glucose levels. The squad team then notified the receiving hospital of a possible stroke patient.
Upon Mario’s arrival to the hospital, the ER nurse practitioner proceeds to gather the patient’s medical history from his wife, Lucinda, who accompanied him in the ambulance. She tells the nurse practitioner that Mario has a history of uncontrolled hypertension (and he was often non-compliant with his anti-hypertensive medications). His recent diagnosis of diabetes also was noted, as well as the oral hypoglycemic agents he was taking.
The wife states both of Mario’s parents passed away from myocardial infarctions when they were in their late 60s.
Smoking history: Mario is a smoker, usually smoking about a pack and a half each day.
Exercise history: Mario’s leads a sedentary lifestyle that had contributed to his excess weight.
At 5’5” inches, Mario weighs 255 pounds. BMI of: ____
What other family history, social history, and vital signs will you obtain from the wife and the patient?
What diagnostic tests will you order for Mario to determine what type of stroke he is having? List at least four diagnostic tests you would order and explain the rationale of each test.
The CT scan indicated a diagnosis of stroke. However, the lab tests and CT scan performed on Mario indicated there was no hemorrhage or early signs of ischemia. What education can you provide the family about the results of a CT scan for diagnosis of brain stroke?
You tell Mario’s wife that it is crucial to recognize the signs of an impending stroke. Describe at least four symptoms and signs of stroke you will educate the patient and family to look for.
You also discuss the RISK factors for stroke with Mario’s family. Lucinda realizes that Mario meets the criteria for all of them. List at least four risk factors for having a stroke:
List at least three differential diagnoses for the symptoms listed above:
What referrals will you make for Mario after his stroke? List at least three.
Focused SOAP Note Template

Patient Information:
Initials, Age, Sex, Race
S (subjective)
CC (chief complaint): a BRIEF statement identifying why the patient is here, stated in the patient’s own words (for instance “headache,” NOT “bad headache for 3 days”).
HPI (history of present illness): This is the symptom analysis section of your note. Thorough documentation in this section is essential for patient care, coding, and billing analysis. Paint a picture of what is wrong with the patient. Use LOCATES Mnemonic to complete your HPI. You need to start EVERY HPI with age, race, and gender (e.g., 34-year-old AA male). You must include the seven attributes of each principal symptom in paragraph form not a list. If the CC was “headache”, the LOCATES for the HPI might look like the following example:
• Location: Head
• Onset: 3 days ago
• Character: Pounding, pressure around the eyes and temples
• Associated signs and symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia
• Timing: After being on the computer all day at work
• Exacerbating/relieving factors: Light bothers eyes; Aleve makes it tolerable but not completely better
• Severity: 7/10 pain scale
Current Medications: Include dosage, frequency, length of time used, and reason for use; also include over the counter (OTC) or homeopathic products.
Allergies: Include medication, food, and environmental allergies separately, including a description of what the allergy is (i.e., angioedema, anaphylaxis, etc.). This will help determine a true reaction versus intolerance.
PMHx: Include immunization status (note date of last tetanus for all adults), past major illnesses, and surgeries. Depending on the CC, more info is sometimes needed.

Soc and Substance Hx: Include occupation and major hobbies, family status, tobacco and alcohol use (previous and current use), and any other pertinent data. Always add some health promo question here, such as whether they use seat belts all the time or whether they have working smoke detectors in the house, living environment, text/cell phone use while driving, and support system.
Fam Hx: Illnesses with possible genetic predisposition, contagious, or chronic illnesses. Reason for death of any deceased first-degree relatives should be included. Include parents, grandparents, siblings, and children. Include grandchildren if pertinent.
Surgical Hx: Prior surgical procedures.
Mental Hx: Diagnosis and treatment. Current concerns (anxiety and/or depression). History of self-harm practices and/or suicidal or homicidal ideation.
Violence Hx: Concern or issues about safety (personal, home, community, sexual (current and historical).
Reproductive Hx: Menstrual history (date of LMP), Pregnant (yes or no), Nursing/lactating (yes or no), contraceptive use (method used), types of intercourse (oral, anal, vaginal, other, any sexual concerns).
ROS (review of symptoms): Cover all body systems that may help you include or rule out a differential diagnosis You should list each system as follows:
• General:
• Head:
• EENT (eyes, ears, nose, and throat):
• Etc.:
Note: You should list these in bullet format, and document the systems in order from head to toe.
Example of Complete ROS:
GENERAL: No weight loss, fever, chills, weakness, or fatigue.
HEENT:
• Eyes: No visual loss, blurred vision, double vision or yellow sclerae.
• Ears, Nose, Throat: No hearing loss, sneezing, congestion, runny nose, or sore throat.
SKIN: No rash or itching.
CARDIOVASCULAR: No chest pain, chest pressure or chest discomfort. No palpitations or edema.
RESPIRATORY: No shortness of breath, cough or sputum.
GASTROINTESTINAL: No anorexia, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. No abdominal pain or blood.
GENITOURINARY: Burning on urination. Last menstrual period (LMP), MM/DD/YYYY.
NEUROLOGICAL: No headache, dizziness, syncope, paralysis, ataxia, numbness or tingling in the extremities. No change in bowel or bladder control.
MUSCULOSKELETAL: No muscle, back pain, joint pain or stiffness.
HEMATOLOGIC: No anemia, bleeding or bruising.
LYMPHATICS: No enlarged nodes. No history of splenectomy.
PSYCHIATRIC: No history of depression or anxiety.
ENDOCRINOLOGIC: No reports of sweating, cold or heat intolerance. No polyuria or polydipsia.
REPRODUCTIVE: Not pregnant and no recent pregnancy. No reports of vaginal or penile discharge. Not sexually active.
ALLERGIES: No history of asthma, hives, eczema or rhinitis.
O (objective)
Physical exam: From head-to-toe, include what you see, hear, and feel when doing your physical exam. You only need to examine the systems that are pertinent to the CC, HPI, and History. Do not use “WNL” or “normal.” You must describe what you see. Always document in head to toe format (i.e., General: Head: EENT: etc.).
Diagnostic results: Include any labs, x-rays, or other diagnostics that are needed to develop the differential diagnoses (support with evidenced and guidelines).
A (assessment)
Differential diagnoses: List a minimum of three differential diagnoses. Your primary or presumptive diagnosis should be at the top of the list. For each diagnosis, provide supportive documentation with evidence-based guidelines.
P (plan)
Includes documentation of diagnostic studies that will be obtained, referrals to other health-care providers, therapeutic interventions, education, disposition of the patient, and any planned follow up visits. Each diagnosis or condition documented in the assessment should be addressed in the plan. The details of the plan should follow an orderly manner.
Also included in this section is the reflection. Reflect on this case, and discuss what you learned, including any “aha” moments or connections you made.
Also include in your reflection, a discussion related to health promotion and disease prevention taking into consideration patient factors (such as, age, ethnic group, etc.), PMH, and other risk factors (e.g., socio-economic, cultural background, etc.).
References
You are required to include at least three evidence-based peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced-based guidelines, which relate to this case to support your diagnostics and differentials diagnoses. Be sure to use correct APA 7th edition formatting. —

_____________________________________________________
Patient Information:

Initials: M.M.
Age: 66
Sex: Male
Race: Hispanic
S (Subjective)

CC (Chief Complaint): Acute aphasia, right facial droop, and right-sided weakness.
HPI (History of Present Illness):
Patient is a 66-year-old Hispanic male.
Onset of symptoms occurred suddenly at his workplace (post office).
Co-worker called 911.
Advanced squad team assessed neurologic deficits and glucose levels during transport.
Patient’s History:
History of uncontrolled hypertension and non-compliance with antihypertensive medications.
Recent diagnosis of diabetes and oral hypoglycemic agent use.
Social and Substance History:
Smoking history: 1.5 packs/day.
Sedentary lifestyle contributing to excess weight (BMI: ____).
Family History:
Parents both deceased due to myocardial infarctions in their late 60s.
Vital Signs: To be obtained from the patient and wife.
Objective

Physical Exam:
Neurologic assessment findings.
Cardiovascular and respiratory assessments as needed.
Diagnostic Results:
CT scan indicates stroke diagnosis.
Lab tests show no hemorrhage or early ischemia.
Assessment

Differential Diagnoses:
Ischemic Stroke
Diagnostic criteria: Neurologic deficits, sudden onset.
Supporting evidence: CT scan.
Hemorrhagic Stroke
Diagnostic criteria: Neurologic deficits, sudden onset, positive CT scan.
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Diagnostic criteria: Brief episode of neurologic dysfunction.
Facial Nerve Palsy
Diagnostic criteria: Isolated right facial droop.
Primary Diagnosis: Ischemic Stroke, based on sudden onset neurologic deficits and positive CT scan.
Plan:
Diagnostic studies: MRI, EKG, carotid ultrasound.
Referrals: Neurologist, physical therapy, speech therapy.
Therapeutic interventions: IV thrombolysis, anticoagulants.
Education: Stroke awareness for patient and family.
Disposition: Admission to stroke unit.
Follow-up visits: Neurology follow-up in one week.
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention:
Smoking cessation.
Blood pressure and glucose control.
Weight reduction and exercise.
Reflection:
Importance of recognizing stroke signs.
Significance of risk factors.
Continual learning in stroke management.
References

Powers, W. J., Rabinstein, A. A., Ackerson, T., Adeoye, O. M., Bambakidis, N. C., Becker, K., … & American Heart Association Stroke Council. (2019). 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 49(3), e46-e110.

Jauch, E. C., Saver, J. L., Adams, H. P., Bruno, A., Connors, J. J., Demaerschalk, B. M., … & Vagal, A. (2013). Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 44(3), 870-947.

Kernan, W. N., Ovbiagele, B., Black, H. R., Bravata, D. M., Chimowitz, M. I., Ezekowitz, M. D., … & Wentworth, D. (2014). Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 45(7), 2160-2236.

Meschia, J. F., Bushnell, C., Boden-Albala, B., Braun, L. T., Bravata, D. M., Chaturvedi, S., … & American Heart Association Stroke Council. (2014). Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 45(12), 3754-3832.

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