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Posted: September 4th, 2023

Introduction to Cultural Anthropology

Introduction to Cultural Anthropology

Reading Response Essay Three

Discuss the role that new media, digital, and other technologies play in the various ethnographic case studies assigned in Part III of the syllabus.

This essay covers texts and films assigned in part 3 of the syllabus. For your discussion, select at least four of the following: Kuipers, Dent, and Bell; Gershon; Kang; Salamandra; Gregory; Lincoln; González; Mathur. You may discuss your chosen novel instead of one of the essays (that is, your novel + 3 of the above). If you have not discussed your novel in essay one or two, this is your last opportunity.

This assignment is not an opinion piece; it is designed to demonstrate knowledge of and reflection on the assigned materials; do not use any other sources. Films may be included but cannot take the place of texts. Essays must be formatted as .doc.dox (not pdf), double-spaced, paged-numbered, and 4-6 pages long (excluding bibliography), with proper citations. Be sure to cite your sources thoroughly and consistently; ½ a letter grade will be deducted for lack of proper referencing.

Read the paper guidelines posted on Blackboard, in Course Information and Syllabus, before writing! Make use of word processing spell and grammar check functions. A bibliography of all sources used must be included at the end of the essay (see syllabus and guidelines for examples of bibliographic citations).

Plagiarism in any form, of even a single line of text, will result in automatic failure and notification of college authorities.

Essay Due: Upload to Assignments on Blackboard by May 19 at 11:59 PM.

The music of Puerto Rico is a rich tapestry of diverse genres and influences that reflect the island’s history, culture, and identity. From indigenous traditions to African rhythms, Spanish traditions to modern-day genres like reggaeton, Puerto Rican music has evolved and adapted over time. In this overview, we will explore the different musical genres and interpretations that have shaped Puerto Rican music.

Indigenous-Pre-Invasion: Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in 1493, Puerto Rico was inhabited by indigenous communities. Their music included songs, dances, storytelling, and epic poems. Percussive instruments like the mayohuacán, guiro, amaraca, and pito were used in these cultural expressions.

The Conquest: With the Spanish colonization in the 16th century, Puerto Rican music started incorporating Spanish traditions such as villancicos, coplas, and religious music. Música Jíbara, rooted in rural and plantation cultures, emerged, featuring the seis as its backbone, along with décimas and other European influences. String instruments like the vihuela, tiple, and bordonúa were introduced.

African Legacy: The African influence on Puerto Rican music is significant due to the arrival of enslaved Africans. The music of ladinos, bozales, maroons, and freed slaves incorporated African rhythms and cultural expressions. Bomba, a genre characterized by its regional variations such as sicá, yubá, and holandé, became an important part of Puerto Rican music.

The Beginning of a New Expression: In the late 18th century, Puerto Rican music began to incorporate elements of classical music through música de capilla and music education. Choral music became prominent in the early 19th century, and the danza, a concert and dance genre, flourished during the mid-19th century. The Spanish zarzuela also gained popularity.

Plena: The urban phenomenon of plena emerged in the early 20th century. Artists like Manuel Jiménez “El Canario,” Mon Rivera, Héctor “Tito” Matos, and groups like Viento de Agua and Pleneros de la 21 revitalized and popularized the plena genre in the 21st century.

Music Post-U.S. Invasion: The U.S. influence brought Protestant traditions and the internationalization of Puerto Rican musical artists. Notable Puerto Rican artists like Antonio Paoli, Jesús Maria Sanromá, Pablo Elvira, Justino Díaz, and Ana María Martínez gained recognition on the global stage.

The Puerto Rican Song: In the 1930s, recorded popular music began to develop, and the “bellonera” style became popular. Renowned songwriters and composers such as Rafael Hernández, Pedro Flores, Sylvia Rexach, Tite Curet Alonso, Daniel Santos, Felipe Rodríguez, and Myrta Silva emerged during this period.

Dance Band/Orchestra Music: The 1930s and 40s saw the rise of big band and dance hall music in Puerto Rico. Plena recordings became popular, and there was a resurgence of Pan American and Caribbean musical exchange, heavily influenced by the United States.

Choral Music in Education: Puerto Rico witnessed the development of choral music education in the 1930s. Prominent figures like Bartolomé Bover, Augusto Rodríguez, Pablo Fernández Badillo, and institutions like the University of Puerto Rico Chorus, InterAmerican University Chorus, Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico Chorus, and San Juan Children’s Chorus contributed to the choral music movement.

The Puerto Rican National School of Music/Class The Puerto Rican National School of Music/Classical: In the 1950s and beyond, Puerto Rico established its National School of Music, nurturing classical musicians such as Héctor Campos Parsi, Amaury Veray, Luis Antonio Ramírez, Roberto Sierra, and Raymond Torres Santos. Local classical ensembles and organizations like Familia Figueroa and Pro Arte Musical also emerged during this period.

Operation Serenity and the Arts and Cultural Institutions: In the 1950s, cultural institutions such as the Festival Casals, Puerto Rico Symphony Orchestra, Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico, and Escuela Libre de Música were created. These institutions further contributed to the internationalization of local artists, composers, and recordings.

Salsa: The 1960s witnessed the emergence of salsa, a genre influenced by Afro-Cuban rhythms, New York musicians, and Puerto Rican artists. Salsa musicians such as César Concepción, Tito Rodríguez, Joe Valle, Cortijo y su Combo, Ismael Rivera, Fania All Stars, Willie Colón, El Gran Combo, and the Dominican merengue phenomena played significant roles in popularizing salsa.

Pop Music, T.V., Recording Artists: The late 1960s saw the entrance of Cuban influence into Puerto Rican cultural life, impacting pop music artists, film, and recordings. Artists like Papo Román, Lucecita, Chucho Avellanet, Lissette, Alfred D. Herger, and Danny Rivera gained popularity during this time.

La Nueva Trova (The New Song): In the 1970s, the emergence of Pan Latin-American music genres led to the rise of la nueva trova. This genre incorporated elements of música jíbara/típica and featured artists like Roy Brown, Haciendo Punto en Otro Son, José Nogueras, and Antonio Cabán Vale.

Spanish and Puerto Rican Ballads and Rock: During the 1970s and 80s, Spanish singers and composers exerted their influence on Puerto Rican pop music artists, film, and recordings. Artists like Raphael, Manuel Alejandro, Camilo Sesto, and the singer-as-auteur concept became prominent during this period.

Reguetón, Puerto Rican Hip Hop, Puerto Rican Rap: In the late 1980s and 90s, new genres like reguetón, Puerto Rican hip hop, and rap emerged. Artists such as Vico C, Don Omar, Daddy Yankee, Tego Calderón, Héctor “el father,” Big Pun, Fat Joe, Ivy Queen, and others contributed to the development and popularity of these genres.

Salsa Evangélica (Evangelist Music): In the 1990s, a genre known as salsa evangélica emerged, combining salsa music with religious themes and lyrics.

Fusion, Jazz, and World Music: Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Puerto Rican musicians have embraced fusion, jazz, and world music genres. Artists like Juan Tizol, Miguel Zenón, William Cepeda, David Sánchez, Eddie Palmieri, Ray Barreto, Eddie Gómez, and Eddie Bobé have made significant contributions in these genres.

“No named genre”: In the 21st century, artists like Calle 13 and Bad Bunny have achieved international recognition, pushing the boundaries of Puerto Rican music with their unique styles and fusions.

Puerto Rican Musical Genres and Interpretations
Expressions of a Culture

Indigeneous-Pre-Invasion Prior to 1493 and throughout early 1500’s
• Areyto
Song, dance, storytelling, epic poems, religious, ceremonial. Percussive (mayohuacán, guiro –similar instruments appear in other cultures, amaraca-precursor of maracas, guamo (sea conch), pito a flute-like instrument.

The Conquest 1508-+
• Spanish traditions (including villancico, copla, cadenas, estribillos, seguidillos, others)
• Criollo (rural and plantation cultures)
• Música Jíbara (including seis–the spine of Puerto Rican rural music, décimas, and expressions of other European cultures)
• Villancicos, Coplas, Romances, Canción de cuna (nursery songs), religious music
• Trovadores
• Introduction of String Instruments—Vihuela, Tiple, bordonúa,

African Legacy
Non-homogeneous culture. The music is used to signify specific events.
• Ladinos, Bozales, Maroons, freed slaves (as per the Real Cedula de 1664)
• Bomba (by regions)—sicá, yubá, holandé, and many others

The Beginning of a New Expression late 18th century
• Música de capilla (Kapellmeister)/classical
• Classical
• Music education
• Choral music early 19th century +

Music as identified as Puerto Rican (Criollo and African traditions and others)
• La Danza—concert and dance in full bloom mid 19th century
• Bandas—military and municipal
• Plena
• The Spanish Zarzuela becomes ever-more popular

• Plena–The urban phenomena 20th century (first part)
• Manuel Jiménez “El Canario”, Mon Rivera
• Héctor “Tito” Matos and Viento de Agua, Pleneros de la 21 21st Century

Music Post-U.S. Invasion
• Protestant traditions (polyphonic)
• The internationalization of Puerto Rican musical artists:
• Antonio Paoli, Jesús Maria Sanromá, Pablo Elvira, Justino Díaz, Ana María Martínez

The Puerto Rican Song 1930’s +
• Development of recorded popular music
• “bellonera”
• Rafael Hernández, Pedro Flores, Sylvia Rexach, Tite Curet Alonso (particularly known for his complex Salsa compositions), Daniel Santos, Felipe Rodríguez, Myrta Silva

Dance Band/Orchestra Music 1930’s & 40’s
• big band and dance hall music
• recordings of Plena as a popular genre
• the resurgence of Pan American/Caribbean exchange
• the US influence

¬Choral Music in Education 1930’s +
• Bartolomé Bover, Augusto Rodríguez, Pablo Fernández Badillo
• University of Puerto Rico Chorus, InterAmerican University Chorus, Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico Chorus
• San Juan Children’s Chorus
• Dr. Luis Olivieri and the choral music movement

The Puerto Rican National School of Music/Classical 1950’s + 2000 +
• Héctor Campos Parsi, Amaury Veray, Luis Antonio Ramírez, Rafael Aponte Ledée, Roberto Sierra, Raymond Torres Santos, Ernesto Cordero, Esther Alejandro
• The emergence of local classical ensembles and organizations
a) Familia Figueroa
b) Pro Arte Musical (founded in 1932)

Operation Serenity and the Arts and Cultural Institutions 1950’s +
• The creation of a cultural nation
• Festival Casals
• Puerto Rico Symphony Orchestra
• Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico
• Escuela Libre de Música
• The further internationalization of local artists, composers, recordings

Salsa 1960’s +
• The emergence of Salsa (Afro-Cuban, New York, Puerto Rico, international)
• Afro-Cuban Rhythms
• The New York musicians (Cuban, African Americans, Puerto Ricans)
• Clave (the driving beat: 2-3, 3-2)
• Most popular musicians/creators:
o César Concepción, Tito Rodríguez, Joe Valle, Cortijo y su Combo, Ismael Rivera
o Fania All Stars: Jerry Masucci, Johnny Pacheco, Larry Harlow
Willie Colón, Papo Lucca and the Sonora Ponceña, El Gran Combo –Rafael Ithier
o The Dominican Merengue Phenomena

Pop Music, T.V., recording artists (the youth movement) late 1960’s
o The Cuban entrance to the cultural life
o Papo Román, Lucecita, Chucho Avellanet, Lissette, Alfred D. Herger, Danny Rivera
o El Club del clan; La nueva ola

La nueva trova (The New Song) 1970’s +
• Emergency of the Pan Latin-American Music Genre
• Elements of Música Jíbara/Típica
• Roy Brown and the Protest Song, Haciendo Punto en Otro Son, José Nogueras, Antonio Cabán Vale

Spanish and Puerto Rican Ballads and Rock 1970/80’s +
• Spanish singers/composers influence on pop music artists, film, recordings
• Raphael and Manuel Alejandro, Camilo Sesto
• The singer as auteur

Reguetón, Puerto Rican Hip Hop, Puerto Rican Rap late 1980/90’s +
• Emergency of a new genre, Cultura Poética
• The Panamanian Influence
• Vico C, Don Omar, Daddy Yankee, others
Tego Calderón, Héctor “el father”, Big Pun, Fat Joe, Ivy Queen

Salsa Evangélica (Evangelist Music) 1990’s

Fusion, Jazz, and World Music 20th/21st Centuries
• Juan Tizol, Miguel Zenón, William Cepeda, David Sánchez, Eddie Palmieri, Ray Barreto (also Salsa), Eddie Gómez, Eddie Bobé

(No named genre) 2000 +
• Calle 13
• Bad Bunny

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