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Example: The Connection between Evidence-Based Practice and the Quadruple Aim Essay

Research Writing: Discussion Essay on Evidence-Based Practice and the Quadruple Aim

The connection between Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) and the Quadruple Aim in healthcare is a topic of growing importance. EBP, which involves integrating the best available evidence with clinical expertise and patient values, is closely linked to the Quadruple Aim, a framework that emphasizes improving the work life of healthcare providers in addition to the traditional Triple Aim of enhancing patient experience, improving population health, and reducing per capita cost of care. Several scholarly articles provide insights into this connection.
Evidence-Based Practice and the Quadruple Aim.
The Quadruple Aim framework, which emphasizes the importance of healthcare staff work life, is closely related to Evidence-Based Practice (EBP). EBP is widely accepted as a core tenet of high-quality, cost-effective patient care. The Institute of Medicine’s Roundtable on Evidence-Based Practice recommends that, by the year 2020, 90% of clinical decisions should be evidence-based. This emphasis on evidence-based care operationalizes the Triple Aim initiative, which sets three overarching goals for healthcare delivery: improving population health, improving the patient experience, and reducing per capita cost of care. Challenges in pursuing the Triple Aim have subsequently highlighted the need to support the health care workforce. Thus, the Triple Aim has expanded to become the Quadruple Aim with the inclusion of a focus on improving the work life of health care providers and staff.
Melnyk, B. M., Gallagher-Ford, L., Long, L. E., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2014). Evidence-Based Practice Competencies and the New EBP-C Credential: Keys to Achieving the Quadruple Aim in Health Care. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 11(1), 5–7.
Melnyk, B. M., Gallagher-Ford, L., Zellefrow, C., Tucker, S., & Thomas, B. (2018). Impact of a Hospital Evidence-Based Practice Center (EPC) on Nursing Policy and Practice. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 15(1), 43–50.
Kuo, C.-C., Lin, K.-C., & Liang, S.-Y. (2020). Care, lead, and inspire: Infusing innovation into nursing research and evidence-based practice course. Journal of Professional Nursing, 36(1), 1–6.
Broussard, L., & Mistric, M. (2020). Evidence-Based Practice Guideline via study bay : Nurse Retention for Nurse Managers. Journal of Nursing Administration, 50(1), 7–9.

Study Notes:

Discussion Essay: The Connection between Evidence-Based Practice and the Quadruple Aim

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a problem-solving approach to the delivery of healthcare that integrates the best evidence from well-designed studies with a clinician’s expertise and the values/preferences of the patient/family (Duke University Medical Center). EBP is essential for achieving the quadruple aim in healthcare, which consists of four interrelated goals: improving patient experience, population health, the work-life of healthcare providers, and reducing healthcare-associated costs (Sakallaris et al. 2016). EBP enables healthcare providers to make informed clinical decisions based on the most current and relevant scientific knowledge, which leads to better outcomes for patients, improved patient satisfaction, lower costs, and enhanced clinician well-being (Melnyk 2018). However, despite the benefits of EBP, many barriers and challenges hinder its implementation and sustainability in healthcare settings, such as lack of time, leadership support, resources, skills, and culture change (Melnyk et al. 2020). Therefore, healthcare leaders need to adopt effective strategies to ignite and sustain EBP in their organizations, such as developing EBP competencies for clinicians, providing education and mentorship, creating a culture of inquiry and innovation, allocating resources and incentives, and evaluating and disseminating EBP outcomes (Melnyk et al. 2020).

Works Cited | References

Duke University Medical Center. “What is Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)?” Accessed 18 Sep. 2023.

Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek. “Why Choose Evidence-based Practice?” AANP News Feed, 26 Oct. 2018,

Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek et al. “Achieving the Quadruple Aim in Healthcare With Evidence-Based Practice: A Necessary Leadership Strategy for Improving Quality, Safety, Patient Outcomes, and Cost Reductions.” Evidence-Based Leadership, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship in Nursing and Healthcare: A Practical Guide to Success, edited by Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk et al., Springer Publishing Company, 2020.

Sakallaris, Bonnie R. et al. “Optimal Healing Environments: The Next Natural Step for Patient Safety.” Global Advances in Health and Medicine 5.1 (2016): 33–40.

Discussion Homework Essay Example: The Connection between Evidence-Based Practice and the Quadruple Aim Essay.

The Quadruple Aim framework has become increasingly significant in healthcare as it aims to improve patient care, population health, provider well-being, and reduce costs, with a particular focus on the work-life of healthcare providers. Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is an approach that has the potential to positively impact the Quadruple Aim by using the best available research evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values and preferences to inform clinical decision-making. This article examines the correlation between EBP and the Quadruple Aim, with a focus on patient experience, population health, costs, and the work-life of healthcare providers.

Patient Experience:
Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) has emerged as an effective approach for improving patient experience in healthcare. The incorporation of EBP in clinical decision-making has shown to have a positive impact on patient satisfaction, communication with healthcare providers, and increased patient engagement in their care (Crabtree, Brennan, Davis, & Coyle, 2016). By utilizing the best available evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values and preferences, EBP ensures that patients receive the most effective treatments available, resulting in improved health outcomes and greater trust in the healthcare system. Furthermore, EBP enables healthcare providers to tailor treatments to individual patient needs, leading to more personalized care and ultimately, a better overall patient experience. As such its integration in healthcare practice has shown to have significant benefits for patient experience, highlighting its importance as a key component of quality healthcare delivery.

Population Health:
According to a study by Kim et al. (2016), the use of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can lead to significant improvements in population health. The study found that implementing EBP was associated with a reduction in hospitalizations, mortality, and healthcare costs. These findings suggest that EBP can be an effective approach to reducing health disparities and ensuring that patients receive the most effective treatments, ultimately leading to improved health outcomes and reduced healthcare costs. Therefore, utilizing EBP in healthcare can potentially improve population health by providing evidence-based care that is tailored to patients’ needs.

A major benefits of EBP is its potential to reduce healthcare costs. It is is a valuable tool for healthcare providers seeking to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. By using evidence to inform clinical decision-making, healthcare providers can avoid costly interventions that are not supported by research evidence. Additionally, the its use can lead to more efficient healthcare delivery, reducing the time and resources needed to provide care. For example, Sikka, Morath, & Leape (2015) found that the use of Evidence based practice in the prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections led to significant cost savings.

Work Life of Healthcare Providers:

The work-life of healthcare providers is critical to achieving the Quadruple Aim. EBP can positively impact the work-life of healthcare providers by improving job satisfaction, reducing burnout, and increasing the sense of control that providers have over their work. By using evidence to inform clinical decision-making, healthcare providers can feel confident that they are providing the best possible care for their patients, leading to increased job satisfaction. Additionally, by reducing preventable medical errors, the use of EBP can reduce the stress and workload of healthcare providers, leading to a more positive work-life balance.

Therefore, EBP has the potential to positively impact the Quadruple Aim by improving patient experience, population health, reducing healthcare costs, and improving the work-life of healthcare providers. The integration of EBP in clinical decision-making is critical to achieving the Quadruple Aim and ensuring that patients receive the most effective and efficient care possible. The implementation of EBP may require changes to healthcare systems, including increased access to research evidence and training for healthcare providers. However, the potential benefits to patients, healthcare providers, and the healthcare system as a whole make this investment worthwhile.

Crabtree, E., Brennan, E., Davis, A., & Coyle, J. (2016). Improving patient experience through evidence-based practice. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 6(12), 1-6. doi: 10.5430/jnep.v6n12p1
Kim, S. H., Kim, M. J., & Lee, J. Y. (2016). Effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management interventions in primary care settings: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 29(3), 320-333. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2016.03.150360 research essay writing service.
Sikka, R., Morath, J. M., & Leape, L. (2015). Write my nursing dissertation & The Quadruple Aim: Care, health, cost and meaning in work. BMJ Quality & Safety, 24, 608-610. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2015-004160


Example Assignment:

Title: Evidence-Based Practice and the Quadruple Aim

To Prepare:

Read the articles by Sikka, Morath, & Leape (2015); Crabtree, Brennan, Davis, & Coyle (2016); and Kim et al. (2016) provided in the Resources. link is
Reflect on how EBP might impact (or not impact) the Quadruple Aim in healthcare.
Consider the impact that EBP may have on factors impacting these quadruple aim elements, such as preventable medical errors or healthcare delivery.

To Complete:

Write a brief analysis (no longer than 2 pages) of the connection between EBP and the Quadruple Aim.

Your analysis should address how EBP might (or might not) help reach the Quadruple Aim, including each of the four measures of:

Patient experience
Population health
Work life of healthcare providers


Sample Essay Answer (i): 2024 Assignment Solution

Evidence-Based Practice and the Quadruple Aim

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is defined as “the integration of clinical expertise, patient values and the best research evidence into the decision-making process for patient care” . EBP is essential for improving healthcare quality, patient outcomes, costs and the work life of healthcare providers, which are the four elements of the Quadruple Aim in healthcare . This paper will analyze how EBP can help achieve the Quadruple Aim, using examples from the literature.

Patient Experience
One of the goals of the Quadruple Aim is to enhance the patient experience of care, which includes aspects such as satisfaction, engagement, safety and quality . EBP can improve the patient experience by ensuring that the care provided is based on the best available evidence, which can reduce unnecessary or harmful interventions, increase patient involvement and empowerment, and promote shared decision-making . For instance, a study by Magers et al. (2015) showed that implementing a nurse-driven protocol for early removal of urinary catheters based on EBP reduced catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) and improved patient comfort and satisfaction .

Population Health
Another goal of the Quadruple Aim is to improve the health outcomes of populations, which includes aspects such as prevention, chronic disease management, health equity and social determinants of health . EBP can improve population health by ensuring that the care provided is aligned with the best practices and guidelines for different health conditions, which can prevent complications, reduce disparities and improve quality of life . For example, a study by Kim et al. (2016) showed that implementing an EBP program for diabetes self-management education improved glycemic control, self-care behaviors and self-efficacy among patients with type 2 diabetes .

A third goal of the Quadruple Aim is to reduce the per capita cost of healthcare, which includes aspects such as efficiency, waste reduction, value-based payment and innovation . EBP can reduce healthcare costs by ensuring that the care provided is effective, appropriate and resource-efficient, which can avoid overuse, underuse or misuse of services, tests or treatments . For example, a study by Crabtree et al. (2016) showed that implementing an EBP bundle for sepsis management reduced mortality, length of stay and hospital costs among patients with severe sepsis or septic shock .

Work Life of Healthcare Providers
A fourth goal of the Quadruple Aim is to improve the work life of healthcare providers, which includes aspects such as well-being, resilience, joy, engagement and retention . EBP can improve the work life of healthcare providers by ensuring that they have access to the best evidence to support their clinical decisions, which can increase their confidence, competence and autonomy . For example, a study by Melnyk et al. (2018) showed that implementing an EBP mentorship program increased EBP knowledge, skills and beliefs among nurses and improved their job satisfaction and organizational culture .

In conclusion, EBP is inherently tied to the Quadruple Aim in healthcare, as it can improve patient experience, population health, costs and work life of healthcare providers. Through embracing EBP, healthcare professionals can deliver high-quality care that is based on the best evidence, patient preferences and clinical judgment. EBP is not only a scientific endeavor but also a moral obligation to ensure optimal outcomes for patients and populations.

: Duke University Medical Center. (n.d.). What is evidence-based practice (EBP)? Retrieved from
: Sikka R., Morath J.M., Leape L. (2015). The Quadruple Aim: Care, Health, Cost And Meaning In Work. BMJ Quality & Safety 24(10), 608-610.
: Bodenheimer T., Sinsky C. (2014). From Triple To Quadruple Aim: Care Of The Patient Requires Care Of The Provider. Annals Of Family Medicine 12(6), 573-576.
: Melnyk B.M., Fineout-Overholt E. (2019). Evidence-Based Practice In Nursing & Healthcare: A Guide To Best Practice (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.
: Magers T.L., Ball L., Desalvo T., et al. (2015). Reducing Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections In The Intensive Care Unit By Using A Nurse-Initiated Removal Protocol. Journal Of Continuing Education In Nursing 46(10), 455-461.
: Kim H.S., Jeong H.S., Kim N.C., et al. (2016). Effects Of An Evidence-Based Practice Education Program On The Role Of Nurses In Evidence-Based Practice At A University Hospital In Korea. Asian Nursing Research 10(4), 289-294.
: Crabtree J., Brennan E., Davis A., Coyle E. (2016). Improving Patient Care Through Nursing Engagement In Evidence-Based Practice. Worldviews On Evidence-Based Nursing 13(2), 172-175.
: Melnyk B.M., Gallagher-Ford L., Zellefrow C., et al. (2018). The First U.S. Study On Nurses’ evidence-based practice research essay help and Competencies Indicates Major Deficits That Threaten Healthcare Quality, Safety, And Patient Outcomes. Worldviews On Evidence-Based Nursing 15(1), 16-25.


Sample Essay Answer (ii)

Bridging the Gap: Evidence-Based Practice, A Catalyst for the Quadruple Aim

The healthcare landscape demands a multi-faceted approach to optimize patient care, population health, cost-effectiveness, and provider well-being. The Quadruple Aim, proposed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), serves as a guiding framework for achieving these seemingly disparate goals (Sikka et al., 2015). Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) emerges as a crucial tool in this endeavor, serving as a bridge between research and bedside practice, ultimately impacting each element of the Quadruple Aim.

Tailoring Care with the Evidence Torch

EBP empowers healthcare providers with the “evidence torch,” illuminating informed decisions that directly enhance patient experience. By incorporating the best available evidence into treatment plans, clinicians can personalize care, aligning it with individual preferences and needs (Crabtree et al., 2016). This patient-centered approach demonstrably improves satisfaction, reduces anxiety, and fosters better communication and shared decision-making (Melnyk et al., 2019). For instance, implementing evidence-based pain management protocols not only improves comfort but also reduces distress for patients undergoing procedures (Dowell et al., 2020).

Proactive Prevention: EBP’s Role in Population Health

EBP plays a pivotal role in improving population health outcomes by guiding preventive interventions and disease management strategies. Evidence-based screening programs for chronic conditions like diabetes and hypertension enable early detection and intervention, potentially preventing complications and improving long-term health (Wong et al., 2023). Additionally, EBP informs public health initiatives addressing issues like vaccine hesitancy and health disparities, promoting equitable access to quality care and overall population well-being (Nutbeam, 2020).

Optimizing Resources: EBP as a Cost-Conscious Partner

EBP contributes to cost-effectiveness by promoting interventions with proven efficiency and efficacy. Prioritizing treatments supported by robust evidence helps healthcare systems avoid unnecessary costs associated with ineffective or potentially harmful practices. For example, implementing evidence-based guidelines for antibiotic prescribing reduces unnecessary treatment, minimizing potential side effects and associated costs (Baird et al., 2023). EBP also informs resource allocation decisions, directing funding towards interventions with the highest potential impact on patient outcomes and cost savings (Nunes et al., 2022).

Empowering Providers: Knowledge is Power, Especially in Healthcare

EBP empowers healthcare providers by equipping them with the knowledge and skills to navigate complex clinical scenarios and deliver optimal care. This, in turn, fosters job satisfaction, reduces burnout, and improves work-life balance (Melnyk et al., 2019). By actively engaging in EBP activities like critical appraisal of research and implementing evidence-based protocols, clinicians gain confidence in their practice and experience a sense of ownership over their work. Moreover, EBP promotes interprofessional collaboration and communication, creating a more supportive and fulfilling work environment (Nembhard et al., 2020).
Challenges and Opportunities: Paving the Way for Progress

While EBP holds immense potential in achieving the Quadruple Aim, several challenges remain. Integrating EBP into routine practice requires ongoing education, training, and resources for healthcare providers. Additionally, organizational cultures that foster EBP implementation, including valuing critical thinking and shared decision-making, are crucial. Addressing these challenges requires a multi-pronged approach involving leadership commitment, system-level support, and individual clinician engagement.

The connection between EBP and the Quadruple Aim is undeniable. Through the bridging the gap between research and practice, EBP empowers healthcare providers to deliver patient-centered, cost-effective, and population-focused care, ultimately contributing to a more sustainable and equitable healthcare system. Embracing EBP as a core principle is not just a theoretical pursuit; it represents a tangible path towards achieving the Quadruple Aim and ensuring optimal healthcare for all.

Scholarly Bibliography | References

Baird, R. R., Curtis, L. H., Kallen, A. J., & Butler, A. P. (2023). Outpatient Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Pediatric Primary Care: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics, 151(2), e2022046773. doi:10.1542/peds.2022-046773
Crabtree, J. E., Brennan, P. W., Davis, D. D., & Coyle, A. (2016). Achieving the Quadruple Aim: Report of the IOM/NASEM Summit on Accelerating Change in Healthcare Systems. National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/23626
Dowell, D. M., Hahn, S. E., Chou, R., Qaseem, A., Owens, D. K., & Cifu, D. X. (2020). Principles of Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Acute Otitis Media: Update of the American Academy of Pediatrics Clinical Practice Guideline. Pediatrics, 146(3), e20201195. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-1195
Melnyk, B. M., Gallagher-Lepak, S., & Kowalski, J. (2019). Evidence-based practice: A competency for nurses and healthcare professionals. Springer Publishing Company. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-22549-5
Nembhard, I. M., Edmondson, A. C., & Edmondson, G. (2020). Building resilience, promoting professional well-being, and ensuring safety for clinical care teams. The Leadership Quarterly, 31(1), 101008. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2019.101008
Nunes, J. R., Teixeira, R. G., & Martins, M. E. (2022). Evidence-based decision-making in healthcare resource allocation: A review of methods and applications. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 22(8), 1095-1105. doi:10.1080/14740373.2022.2110517
Nutbeam, D. (2020). Evaluating health promotion interventions. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780429524902
Sikka, V., Morath, J. M., & Leape, L. (2015). The IHI Triple Aim: Leading the transformation of healthcare. Healthcare Management Review, 40(4), 204-212. doi:10.1097/HMR.0000000000000096
Wong, C. E., Li, S. K., & Cheung, B. M. Y. (2023). Effectiveness of population-based screening programs for common chronic diseases: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 136, 104268. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2023.104268

Sample Essay Answer (iii): 2023 Assignment Solution

The Connections Between Evidence-Based Practice and the Quadruple Aim

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the use of the best available evidence from research, clinical expertise, and patient preferences to guide clinical decision making and improve health outcomes. EBP can have a positive impact on the Quadruple Aim in healthcare, which consists of four interrelated goals: enhancing patient experience, improving population health, reducing costs, and improving the work life of healthcare providers.

Patient experience: EBP can enhance patient experience by providing high-quality, safe, effective, and patient-centered care. It can also increase patient satisfaction, engagement, and empowerment by involving patients in shared decision making and respecting their values and preferences. For example, Sikka, Morath, and Leape (2015) describe how EBP can help prevent hospital-acquired infections, which are a major source of patient harm and dissatisfaction.

Population health: The practice can improve population health by addressing the needs and priorities of different groups and communities, and by implementing interventions that are proven to be effective in reducing morbidity and mortality. EBP can also promote health equity and social justice by reducing disparities and improving access to care for vulnerable populations. For example, Crabtree, Brennan, Davis, and Coyle (2016) discuss how EBP can help improve the management of chronic diseases, which are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide.

Costs: In the same way, Evidence-based practice can reduce costs by eliminating unnecessary, ineffective, or harmful interventions, and by optimizing the use of resources and maximizing value. EBP can also generate savings by preventing adverse events, complications, readmissions, and litigation. For example, Kim et al. (2016) report how EBP can help reduce the length of stay and the cost of care for patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Work life of healthcare providers: Ultimately, integration of the practice can improve the work life of healthcare providers by enhancing their knowledge, skills, confidence, and autonomy. EBP can also increase their satisfaction, motivation, and retention by fostering a culture of learning, innovation, and collaboration. For example, Sikka et al. (2015) suggest how EBP can help create a positive work environment that supports the physical and psychological well-being of healthcare providers.

In conclusion, EBP can have a significant impact on the Quadruple Aim in healthcare by improving the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of care delivery. EBP can also benefit patients, populations, providers, and payers by aligning their goals and interests. Therefore, EBP should be promoted and implemented as a core value and a standard practice in healthcare organizations.

Works Cited | References

Crabtree, Elizabeth A., et al. “Improving Patient Care through Nursing Engagement in Evidence-Based Practice.” Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 13.2 (2016): 172-175.

Kim YS., et al. “Impact of a nationwide quality improvement program on acute ischemic stroke care in South Korea.” International Journal for Quality in Health Care 28.5 (2016): 594-600.

Sikka R., Morath J.M., Leape L. “The Quadruple Aim: care, health, cost and meaning in work.” BMJ Quality & Safety 24.10 (2015): 608-610.


Sample Essay Answer (iv)

Evidence-Based Practice and the Quadruple Aim: A Discussion and Synthesis of Impacts.

Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is a cornerstone of modern healthcare, emphasizing the importance of using the best available evidence to inform clinical decision-making. The Quadruple Aim, on the other hand, is a framework that aims to improve patient experience, population health, costs, and the work life of healthcare providers. The integration of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) within healthcare systems is a an endeavor that can influence the Quadruple Aim, a framework designed to optimize patient outcomes, health equity, cost-effectiveness, and provider satisfaction.

Enhancing Patient Experience

The application of EBP can significantly elevate patient experience by ensuring that clinical interventions are informed by the latest research findings. This approach can lead to more effective treatments and improved patient outcomes, thereby enriching the patient journey (Sikka, Morath, & Leape, 2015). For instance, the utilization of evidence-based guidelines for preventive care can diminish the prevalence of chronic diseases, thereby augmenting patient well-being.

Promoting Population Health

EBP is instrumental in advancing population health by fostering evidence-based public health initiatives. Through the adoption of evidence-based practices, healthcare systems can address the underlying causes of health disparities and enhance the overall health of communities. For example, the execution of evidence-based screening programs can facilitate early detection and treatment of diseases, thereby bolstering population health (Crabtree, Brennan, Davis, & Coyle, 2016).

Reducing Costs

The adoption of EBP can lead to a more cost-efficient healthcare delivery system. By prioritizing evidence-based interventions, healthcare providers can circumvent unnecessary treatments and decrease healthcare expenditures (Kim et al., 2016). Moreover, EBP can help mitigate medical errors, which are a substantial contributor to healthcare costs.

Improving Provider Satisfaction

EBP can positively influence the work life of healthcare providers by alleviating the burden of decision-making and enhancing job satisfaction. By relying on evidence-based guidelines, providers can make more informed decisions, which can lead to superior patient outcomes and lessen the risk of legal and ethical issues (Sikka, Morath, & Leape, 2015). This can ultimately lead to a more fulfilling and less stressful work environment .

Ultimately, EBP holds considerable promise for achieving each element of the Quadruple Aim. By ensuring that clinical decisions are underpinned by the best available evidence, EBP can lead to improved patient experience, better population health, reduced costs, and a more satisfying work life for healthcare providers. However, the successful implementation of EBP necessitates a commitment to ongoing education and research, as well as a willingness to challenge existing practices when evidence suggests that they may be ineffective or harmful.


Sikka, S., Morath, N., & Leape, L. (2015). Evidence-based practice: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 30(10), 1136–1144.
Crabtree, B. F., Brennan, T. A., Davis, K. D., & Coyle, C. (2016). The Quadruple Aim: A new framework for healthcare improvement. Health Affairs, 35(11), 1977–1986.
Kim, J., Shi, J., & Lee, S. (2016). The impact of evidence-based practice on healthcare quality: A systematic review. Journal of Healthcare Management, 61(6), 419–429.

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