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Posted: September 4th, 2023

Chapter 2: The Biology of Memory

INSTRUCTIONS
1. You will select ten questions to answer for your final exam project. Each new bullet point denotes a new question (Chapters 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, and 10 have two different questions to choose from). Each question that you choose must come from a different chapter (meaning you cannot choose to answer both questions from Chapter 2, for example). As there are 12 chapters included, you may skip two chapters when choosing your questions.

2. Each answer must be approximately 200 words (one page, double-spaced, 12pt Times New Roman). You are welcome to go over in your answer, but you must meet the minimum. A complete assignment will be at least ten pages long. Please include a simple header with the page number.

3. Do not copy the questions into your exam. This will increase your plagiarism percentage needlessly and will not count toward your word minimum. At the beginning of each answer, simply include what chapter the question comes from.

4. You are not expected to use any resources outside of the textbook and chapter PowerPoints. If you are directly quoting the text or PowerPoint, simply cite as you normally would (Schwartz, p. 12). You are free to use peer-reviewed articles if you feel like it’s necessary, but I am looking for your original thoughts in these answers (and the accuracy of your answers to the questions) above all else.

5. You may answer up to two additional questions (from any chapters) for extra credit. Each question that is answered thoroughly and accurately will earn you +2.5% on your final grade, for a total of +5%.

6. Any submission that exceeds 25% plagiarism (i.e., is a color other than blue or green on the Turnitin submission) will be scrutinized for originality. Any submission exceeding 50% plagiarism will be given an automatic 0. This assignment is worth 50% of your grade, so please take this seriously.

7. This assignment is due on June 17th (Friday) at 11:59pm. I will not be answering any questions about this assignment after Wednesday, June 15th. You are expected to look through this document prior to the last day of the course and figure out what you need to do accordingly.

QUESTION LIST
Chapter 2: The Biology of Memory
• You hit the gym, releasing dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin in your brain. What are these three things? Explain how these three things are transmitted and retained in the brain, and how these three things impact our body
o (Hint: a good answer should include the terms neuron, dendrite, axon, action potential, and synapse)

• What makes up the cortical and subcortical brain? How are these two structures of the human brain different, and what are three examples of ways that they work together in your day-to-day life?

Chapter 3: Working Memory
• Do you feel that you have a strong working memory: why or why not? What types of strategies can help someone trying to remember a large amount of information, and what might hinder someone from remembering as many items at a time as they would like?

• As you are sitting in an in-person lecture (or Zoom lecture) for a class, describe how each part of Baddeley’s Working Memory Model is processing and potentially storing information.

Chapter 4: Episodic Memory
• You get a major promotion at work (congrats!). How does this experience get processed by your memory system? Why might this memory feel “stronger” than the memory of any other day at work? What would you have to do to “forget” this memory, and how successful do you think you would be at that?

Chapter 5: Semantic & Lexical Memory
• Describe what would happen, according to the Associative Network Memory Model, if I asked you to think about the word “blue”. What would we call the word “blue”? What might impact the “speed” or “strength” of connectivity via the ANMM?

• You go to your favorite restaurant to order dinner. What are the schemas and scripts involved in this event? To what degree are phonetics, semantics, and syntax important in the role of schemas and scripts?

Chapter 6: Visual Memory
• Although humans are known for their ability to recognize faces, what tends to a) help us remember and b) skew our memories of faces? What are two real-world scenarios where memories for faces may be impacted by bias?

Chapter 7: Autobiographical Memory
• Let’s think about your time in college and apply Conway’s model to it. What are the a) event-specific, b) general events, and c) lifetime periods that are stored and represented during your (entire) college career? What is your “working self” doing as you progress through your semesters?

• When was your earliest memory? Explain why that may be the earliest thing you can remember, and why your more complete memories may have started occurring when you were in elementary school. What may make it difficult to know if any of your early memories happened as you remember them?

Chapter 8: False Memories
• Briefly outline your own example of an a) Deese-Roediger-McDermott Procedure (DRM), b) false memory induction procedure, and c) imagination inflation event. Which of the three do you feel is the most ethical in studying false memory, and why?

• Imagine that you are a police detective speaking with a witness and/or victim of a domestic violence crime. What kind of questions would you ask to ensure that you were getting true memory retrievals and not inducing false memories? Be specific.

Chapter 9: Metamemory
• Give three different examples (each) of a time when you have a) had a feeling of knowing judgement, b) an ease-of-learning judgement, and c) a judgement of learning. How have you used monitoring, self-regulation, and control of your metamemory in these examples?

Chapter 10: Memory Disorders
• Imagine you are a neuroscientist, and a patient comes to you expressing issues with amnesia symptoms. What questions would you ask to determine which type of amnesia-related disorder the patient might be suffering from?

• Jane, a lifelong nurse, has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. What is Alzheimer’s disease? What can you expect Jane to experience at each of the four stages of Alzheimer’s? How can Jane and her doctors slow the progression of the disease?

Chapter 11: Memory in Childhood
• Your friend just had a baby and knows that you have been studying memory in childhood. Your friend is concerned that because their child will be non-verbal for so long, it will be impossible to tell if the child is making memories. What would you tell your friend to look for to ease her worries and prove that her child’s infant memory is progressing as it should be? What would you suggest as good practices for your friend to use to strengthen memory development as their child gets older (and communicates verbally)?

Chapter 12: Memory in Older Adults
• Juan is an older adult (65+) who is beginning to worry about memory decline. He wants to do everything that he can to prevent issues with his memory. What would you say to reassure him about younger vs. older Juan’s ability to remember? What are the biological changes you would point out to Juan, including suggestions of things he should do vs. things he should look out for as he continues to age?

Chapter 13: Memory Improvement & Learning Efficiency
• Give two (thorough) examples of how you would use each of the four broad principles of learning (8 examples total). Which of the four principles do you find the most useful and why?

______________________________-

Chapter 2: The Biology of Memory

Question: You hit the gym, releasing dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin in your brain. What are these three things? Explain how these three things are transmitted and retained in the brain, and how these three things impact our body.

Answer:

Dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin are three neurotransmitters that play a role in memory. Dopamine is involved in reward and motivation, noradrenaline is involved in attention and arousal, and serotonin is involved in mood and sleep.

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that carry signals between neurons. They are released from the axon of one neuron and bind to receptors on the dendrite of another neuron. When a neurotransmitter binds to a receptor, it opens an ion channel, which allows ions to flow into or out of the neuron. This change in the electrical potential of the neuron can either excite or inhibit the neuron.

Dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin are all stored in vesicles in the axon of a neuron. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles release the neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, the space between the two neurons. The neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the dendrite of the other neuron.

Dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin are all involved in memory in different ways. Dopamine is involved in the encoding of new memories, noradrenaline is involved in the consolidation of memories, and serotonin is involved in the retrieval of memories.

How do these three things impact our body?

Dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin all have a variety of effects on our body. Some of the effects of these neurotransmitters include:

Dopamine:
Reward and motivation
Movement
Learning and memory
Attention
Mood
Noradrenaline:
Attention
Arousal
Stress response
Learning and memory
Serotonin:
Mood
Sleep
Appetite
Pain perception

Chapter 3: Working Memory

Question: Do you feel that you have a strong working memory: why or why not? What types of strategies can help someone trying to remember a large amount of information, and what might hinder someone from remembering as many items at a time as they would like?

Answer:

I believe that I have a strong working memory. I am able to keep track of multiple pieces of information at once and I am able to manipulate that information. For example, I am able to follow multiple conversations at once and I am able to do mental math.

There are a number of strategies that can help someone improve their working memory. Some of these strategies include:

Chunking: This involves grouping information together into smaller, more manageable chunks. For example, instead of trying to remember a 10-digit phone number, you could chunk the number into three 3-digit chunks.
Rehearsal: This involves repeating the information over and over again. This can help to keep the information in your working memory for a longer period of time.
Mnemonic devices: These are memory aids that can help you to remember information. Some common mnemonic devices include acronyms, acrostics, and pegwords.

There are also a number of things that can hinder someone’s working memory. Some of these factors include:

Stress: When you are stressed, your working memory can be impaired.
Fatigue: When you are tired, your working memory can also be impaired.
Distraction: If you are distracted, it can be difficult to keep track of information in your working memory.

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