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Posted: September 4th, 2023

Attention Restoration Theory

Instructions:

Pick one of the below theories and write a paper on that theory

· Recreation Specialization

· Social Carrying Capacity

· Serious Leisure

· Flow

· Play

· Wanderlust

· Deviant Leisure

· Place Attachment

· Attention Restoration Theory

Each paper should include the following pages

· History of theory/concept

· Consider: original use, theories and fields of which this theory emerged, who were the original researcher/authors.

· Principles of theory/concept

· Consider: Describing the theory as the authors/researchers do, but also in laymen’s terms. Are there any diagrams or conceptual models? If so they should be included and described here.

· Tools/research methods used to capture theory/concept

· Consider: What scales, research methods, or practices have been used to measure this concept. If none exist explain why. If some have include images, examples, or links to the tools.

· Examples of research this used this theory.

· Consider: What research has used this to date. Give a number of examples, at least 3 for full credit. Briefly explain its usage and results in research.

· Real world examples of concepts in practice

· Consider: Finding articles in online newspapers or magazine that reflect the implications of these theories or concepts. This may not be spelled out directly, so feel free (regardless) to draw the conclusion from the article and how the theory or concept is applicable to the topic. At least 3 examples for full credit.

· Hypothetical applications to various entities and how this theory could inform decisions for various groups and individuals.

· Consider: Think about other topics or situation that you have personally experienced and how this theory applies to that situation. Explain how the theory or concept informed a decision you made or experienced and may not have even known it at the time. At least 3 examples for full credit.

· Reference page

· All articles and references should be properly cited using APA guidelines on this page. This includes whatever references were used to find historical information, examples of research, tools, and real world examples.

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Attention Restoration Theory

Introduction:
Attention Restoration Theory (ART) is a psychological theory that focuses on the ability of natural environments to restore attentional capacities. The theory suggests that exposure to nature can help individuals recover from mental fatigue caused by prolonged periods of directed attention. ART originated from the works of Rachel and Stephen Kaplan in the late 1970s and has since become a central concept in environmental psychology, landscape architecture, and conservation biology. This paper provides an overview of the history of ART, the principles of the theory, the research methods used to capture the concept, examples of research that have used ART, real-world examples of the theory in practice, and hypothetical applications of the theory.

History of the Theory:
Rachel and Stephen Kaplan developed the theory of ART in the late 1970s as part of their research on the psychological benefits of nature. They observed that exposure to natural environments had a restorative effect on attentional capacities, compared to exposure to urban or built environments. They posited that natural environments provide a respite from the constant demands of directed attention and restore the ability to sustain attention by engaging involuntary attention. The Kaplans described two types of attention: directed attention, which is effortful, focused, and goal-directed, and involuntary attention, which is effortless, automatic, and triggered by the environment. They suggested that natural environments capture involuntary attention and allow directed attention to recover, leading to restoration.

Principles of the Theory:
ART posits that exposure to natural environments can help individuals recover from mental fatigue caused by prolonged periods of directed attention. The theory suggests that natural environments provide a restorative effect by engaging involuntary attention and allowing directed attention to recover. Natural environments capture involuntary attention through four key features: fascination, being away, coherence, and compatibility. Fascination refers to the ability of natural environments to engage the senses and generate interest. Being away refers to the ability of natural environments to provide a respite from everyday life and demands. Coherence refers to the ability of natural environments to provide a sense of order and structure. Compatibility refers to the ability of natural environments to match an individual’s needs and goals. The combination of these features leads to a restorative experience that enhances attentional capacities.

Tools/Research Methods Used to Capture Theory/Concept:
Several scales and research methods have been developed to capture ART. The most widely used scale is the Attention Restoration Scale (ARS), which measures the restorative potential of natural environments. The ARS consists of 16 items that assess four features of natural environments: fascination, being away, coherence, and compatibility. The ARS has been validated in several studies and has been used in a variety of settings, including parks, forests, and urban green spaces. Other research methods used to capture ART include physiological measures, such as heart rate variability, electroencephalography (EEG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Examples of Research That Used ART:
Several studies have used ART to investigate the restorative potential of natural environments. For example, Berman et al. (2008) found that exposure to natural environments led to significant improvements in attentional capacities compared to exposure to urban environments. They also found that exposure to nature was associated with decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex, a brain region involved in directed attention. Another study by Joye and Bolderdijk (2015) found that the restorative potential of natural environments was influenced by personal preferences and goals. They found that individuals who preferred natural environments had higher scores on the ARS and reported greater restoration after exposure to nature.

Real-World Examples of the Concept in Practice:
The principles of ART have been applied in a variety of real-world contexts, such as healthcare, education, and urban design. For example, hospitals have incorporated nature-based interventions, such as rooftop gardens

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