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Anatomy And Physiology 2. Explain the functions of the oral cavity and pharynx

Anatomy And Physiology 2. Explain the functions of the oral cavity and pharynx.

What’s a condition that can occur after a burst appendix?

**Please be sure to research your questions and add references in APA style.

9-10 sentence each.

The oral cavity, commonly known as the mouth, is a vital component of the digestive system responsible for the initial breakdown of food through mechanical and chemical digestion. The functions of the oral cavity include ingestion, taste sensation, mechanical digestion, and chemical digestion. Ingestion involves the intake of food, which is facilitated by the teeth, tongue, and lips. Taste sensation occurs when the taste buds in the tongue perceive the chemical composition of the food. Mechanical digestion involves the physical breakdown of food through chewing and grinding, while chemical digestion is initiated by enzymes present in saliva. Salivary amylase breaks down carbohydrates while lingual lipase initiates the digestion of lipids. The oral cavity also plays a role in speech, breathing, and the immune system by producing saliva that contains antibodies that fight against pathogens.

The pharynx is a muscular tube that connects the oral cavity to the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx functions in both the digestive and respiratory systems by facilitating the passage of food and air respectively. During swallowing, the muscles of the pharynx contract and push the bolus of food into the esophagus, which leads to the stomach for further digestion. The pharynx also plays a role in sound production by facilitating the movement of air from the lungs to the vocal cords in the larynx.

A condition that can occur after a burst appendix is called peritonitis. Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum, which is the lining of the abdominal cavity. The appendix is a small pouch attached to the large intestine and can become inflamed, leading to rupture and spillage of fecal matter and bacteria into the peritoneal cavity. This can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and even sepsis if left untreated. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and surgical removal of the appendix.

References:

Martini, F. H., Nath, J. L., & Bartholomew, E. F. (2018). Fundamentals of anatomy & physiology. Pearson.

Townsend, C. M., Beauchamp, R. D., Evers, B. M., & Mattox, K. L. (2017). Sabiston textbook of surgery: The biological basis of modern surgical practice. Elsevier.

Edwin Mariam
Question: What do you think gluten is? Do you think this is a one size fits all diet for the digestive system?

***Please be sure to research your questions and add references in APA style.
Gluten is a protein found in certain grains, including wheat, barley, and rye. It is responsible for giving bread its characteristic chewiness and elasticity. Gluten has been the subject of much debate in recent years, with some people advocating for a gluten-free diet for better health, while others argue that it is unnecessary for the majority of the population.

For people with celiac disease, gluten can be extremely harmful. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder in which gluten triggers an immune response that damages the lining of the small intestine, leading to malabsorption of nutrients and a range of symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and fatigue. The only treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet.

However, for people without celiac disease, the benefits of a gluten-free diet are less clear. In fact, some studies have suggested that a gluten-free diet may be detrimental to health, as it may lead to a deficiency in certain nutrients found in grains, such as fiber and B vitamins.

Moreover, there is evidence that non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) may be a real condition that affects some individuals. NCGS is characterized by symptoms similar to celiac disease, such as bloating and abdominal pain, but without the immune system involvement or intestinal damage. However, the diagnosis of NCGS is controversial, and some experts question whether it is a real condition or a placebo effect.

In conclusion, while a gluten-free diet is essential for people with celiac disease, it is not a one-size-fits-all diet for the digestive system. People without celiac disease should not avoid gluten unless advised to do so by a healthcare provider, as a gluten-free diet may lead to nutrient deficiencies and other health risks.

References:

Lundin, K. E. (2015). Non-celiac gluten sensitivity—why worry?. BMC medicine, 13(1), 1-5.

Vici, G., Belli, L., Biondi, M., & Polzonetti, V. (2016). Gluten free diet and nutrient deficiencies: A review. Clinical Nutrition, 35(6), 1236-1241.

Rubio-Tapia, A., Hill, I. D., Kelly, C. P., & Calderwood, A. H. (2013). Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: a review. JAMA, 309(23), 236-244.

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